User Tools

Site Tools


Interactions between multiple signals: coherence, Granger causality, and phase-slope index


  • Develop an intuition for what determines the coherence between two signals
  • Employ some different methods of estimating coherence to appreciate the tradeoffs involved
  • Understand the main limitation of the coherence measure: a lack of information about directionality
  • Grasp the concept of Granger causality in the context of autoregressive models
  • Explore cases where Granger causality can give inaccurate or misleading results, and learn how to detect such cases
  • Apply an alternative method, the phase-slope index, that can work in cases where G-causality fails


  • (background reading, a brief review) Fries (2005) Communication through coherence paper
  • (optional, a nice example application) deCoteau et al. (2007) hippocampus-striatum coherence changes with learning
  • (technical background) Ding et al. (2006) theory of Granger causality and applications to neuroscience


So far, our analysis has been limited to single local field potentials, or phrased more generally, univariate time series. In this module we consider basic methods for characterizing the relationship between simultaneously recorded LFPs. Two such signals could in principle be completely unrelated (independent) or display various forms of coordination, such as transient synchronization in a specific frequency band.

Characterizing and quantifying relationships between different signals, recorded from anatomically related areas in the brain, is an important tool in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Much evidence supports the idea that the effective flow of information along a fixed anatomical projection can be dynamically regulated, for instance by emphasizing bottom-up rather than top-down inputs in a task-related manner.

One possible mechanism for this routing of information is “communication through coherence” and its many variants (Fries, 2005) which propose that effective connectivity (i.e. the flow of information) depends on the degree to which two areas exhibit coherent oscillatory activity. In this module we define LFP coherence, explore its properties, and apply it to some example data. (For a brief review on what is meant by structural, functional and effective connectivity, see here).

Coherence is an inherently symmetric measure, i.e. it cannot distinguish whether A influences B or the other way around. To address the directionality question, we also explore Granger causality and phase slopes.

Coherence: definition

Let's start by considering how two oscillating signals may be related. (We will treat the more general case of non-periodic signals later.) One can imagine various possible relationships between the two, such as illustrated here (From Siegel et al. 2012):

Recall that oscillations of a given frequency are characterized by their amplitude and phase. The bottom left panel shows a case in which the amplitudes of two signals are correlated, as can be seen from the signal envelopes in red.

The top two panels show examples of two signals whose phases are related. The signals in the top left panel have the same phase at any given point in time; this situation is often referred to as synchrony. In the top right panel, the phases are not the same at every point, but there is a constant phase relationship (one signal is shifted relative to the other).

An intuitive definition of the coherence between two signals (at a given frequency) is the extent to which two signals display a consistent phase relationship. It is 0 if the phases are completely unrelated, and 1 if the phase relationship is identical at every time point. Thus, both top row panels show signals that are coherent. The zero phase shift “synchrony” in the top left is a special case of the more general idea of “coherence”.

☛ Are the two signals in the lower left panel coherent?

Diversion: the Wiener-Khinchin theorem

We would like to capture formally the coherence between two signals as illustrated above. To do so, it is useful to gain an intuition for another piece of Fourier theory, the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. This theorem (essentially) states that the Fourier transform of a given signal's autocorrelation corresponds to the Fourier transform of the signal itself. This can be illustrated by plotting the autocorrelation function of a periodic signal:

Fs = 500; dt = 1./Fs;
t = [0 2]; tvec = t(1):dt:t(2)-dt;
f1 = 8;
data1 = sin(2*pi*f1*tvec)+0.1*randn(size(tvec));
[acf,lags] = xcorr(data1,100,'coeff');
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,acf); grid on;

The autocorrelation has the same periodicity as the original signal (8Hz, so peaks 0.125s apart). So, its Fourier transform would result in a spectral decomposition with a strong 8Hz peak.

The key step underlying the formal definition of coherence is to take the Fourier transform, not of the autocorrelation function as above, but of the cross-correlation function between two signals.

If two signals have a consistent phase relationship at a given frequency, this will show up in the cross-correlation:

f2 = 8;
data2 = sin(2*pi*f2*tvec+pi/4)+0.1*randn(size(tvec)); % phase-shifted version of data1
[ccf,lags] = xcorr(data1,data2,100,'coeff'); % now a cross-correlation
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,ccf); grid on;

Note that the xcorr no longer has a peak at time lag zero, as is the case for an autocorrelation. Rather, the peak is offset by an amount corresponding to the phase difference between the two signals. The correlation at this phase offset is nearly 1, indicating a strong correlation; in other words, signal 1 is very similar to signal 2 some time later; the xcorr is periodic at 8Hz as above. The Fourier transform of this xcorr would thus have a strong coefficient for 8Hz, but the phase for this component would be different from the autocorrelation.

☛ Verify that changing the phase shift in data2 indeed changes the phase of the cross-correlogram.

The Fourier spectrum of the cross-correlation function is known as the cross-spectrum or cross-spectral density (csd).

Definition and example

Now we are ready for the formal definition of coherence (full name: “magnitude-squared coherence”) between two signals x and y:

$$ C_{xy} = \frac{\lvert{P_{xy}}\rvert^2}{P_{xx}P_{yy}} $$

that is, the cross-spectrum $P_{xy}$ normalized by the auto-spectra of the two signals. $|x|$ indicates the modulus (magnitude) of $x$, so for now we are ignoring the angle (phase) component of the cross-spectrum.

Let's see this definition in action:

plot(tvec,data1,'r',tvec,data2,'b'); legend({'signal 1','signal 2'});
title('raw signals');
[Pxx,F] = pwelch(data1,hanning(250),125,length(data1),Fs);
[Pyy,F] = pwelch(data2,hanning(250),125,length(data1),Fs);
plot(F,abs(Pxx),'r',F,abs(Pyy),'b'); xlim([0 100]);
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)'); ylabel('power'); title('PSD');
[Pxy,F] = cpsd(data1,data2,hanning(250),125,length(data1),Fs);
plot(F,abs(Pxy)); xlim([0 100]);
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)'); ylabel('power'); title('cross-spectrum');
[acf,lags] = xcorr(data1,data2,100,'coeff');
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,acf); grid on;
xlabel('time lag (s)'); ylabel('correlation ({\itr})'); title('xcorr');

Note that the cross-spectrum Pxy is computed by a special function, cpsd(), which takes the familiar arguments of window, overlap, nFFT, and Fs.

You should get:

Notice that the cross-spectrum has a clear peak at 8Hz as expected.

☛ What happens if you change the amplitude of one of the input signals? Make the amplitude of data1 twice as large.

As you can see, the cross-spectrum depends on the amplitude of the input signals. This is usually not what we want when analyzing brain signals, because the amplitude at any given time could depend on the electrical properties of our electrode and the precise recording location relative to a source of interest. Thus, coherence normalizes the cross-spectrum by the spectra of the individual signals.

☛ For the two signals of unequal amplitude, compute the coherence by normalizing the cross-spectrum (C = (abs(Pxy).^2)./(Pxx.*Pyy);). Verify that now there is no change in coherence when scaling data1 by a factor 2 as above.

This normalization means that coherence should theoretically be independent of signal amplitude. However, in practice we have noise to worry about: if the signal becomes small enough, the phases will be corrupted by noise.

☛ Find out how small you need to make data1 relative to the noise before a drop in coherence occurs.

Instead of computing the coherence manually from the cross-spectrum and the individual spectra, we can also use mscohere(), which takes the same arguments. An example follows in the next section. However, a useful property of cpsd() is that it can be used to obtain the phase of the cross-spectrum, i.e. the phase lag (or lead) between the two signals.

☛ Instead of plotting the modulus (abs() in the above), plot the angle (angle()) of the cross-spectrum. Verify that it recovers the phase lag used in generating the two signals.

☛ Important! Can (absolute) coherence be interpreted as evidence for a directional relationship such as “A leads B” or “A causes B”? What about the angle?

Properties of the coherence measure

Example 1

Thinking about coherence in terms of the cross-correlation between the signals is often helpful in interpreting coherence values. For instance, it can explain why two signals that have an 8Hz component in their power spectra are not necessarily coherent:

%% just verify some cases where we break the phase relationship
f = 0.5; % freq modulation (Hz) 
f2 = 8;
m = 4; % freq modulation strength
wsz = 250; % window size 
s2 = data2;
plot(tvec,s2,tvec,data1); title('signal 1 - constant phase');
s3 = sin(2*pi*f2*tvec + m.*sin(2*pi*f*tvec - pi/2)) + 0.1*randn(size(tvec));
plot(tvec,s3,tvec,data1); title('signal 2 - varying phase');
[Ps2,F] = pwelch(s2,hanning(wsz),wsz/2,length(data2),Fs);
plot(F,abs(Ps2)); title('PSD');
[Ps3,F] = pwelch(s3,hanning(wsz),wsz/2,length(data2),Fs);
plot(F,abs(Ps3)); title('PSD');
[C,F] = mscohere(data1,s2,hanning(wsz),wsz/2,length(data1),Fs); % shortcut to obtain coherence
plot(F,C); title('coherence'); xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');
[C,F] = mscohere(data1,s3,hanning(wsz),wsz/2,length(data1),Fs);
plot(F,C); title('coherence'); xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');
[acf,lags] = xcorr(data1,s2,100,'coeff');
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,acf); grid on;
xlabel('time lag (s)'); ylabel('correlation ({\itr})'); title('xcorr');
[acf,lags] = xcorr(data1,s3,100,'coeff');
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,acf); grid on;
xlabel('time lag (s)'); ylabel('correlation ({\itr})'); title('xcorr');

This should give something like:

In the left column we have two signals with a constant phase relationship, so the cross-correlation has large values (we can predict one signal from the other with high accuracy). In the right column, we have a frequency-modulated signal, such that the phase relationship with the reference (8Hz) signal is much more variable. Accordingly, the cross-correlation values are much smaller (note the scale) and therefore the coherence at 8Hz is much lower compared to the left side as well.

The coherence measure is subject to the same estimation tradeoffs and issues that we encountered previously for spectral estimation in general. These include sensitivity to window size and shape, and the number of windows used for averaging. As you can see from the above plot, our coherence measure looks quite noisy.

☛ Increase the length of the data generated for analysis to 10s instead of 2s and recompute the coherence. What do you notice?

cpsd and mscohere use Welch's method of overlapping windows for spectral estimation. Thus, the robustness of the resulting estimate depends critically on the number of windows used. The coherence estimate should clean up somewhat as you increase the data length.

Example 2

Consider the following pair of signals:

wsize = 50;
Fs = 500; dt = 1./Fs;
t = [0 2];
tvec = t(1):dt:t(2)-dt;
f1 = 40; f2 = 40;
% generate some strange sine waves
mod1 = square(2*pi*4*tvec,20); mod1(mod1 < 0) = 0;
mod2 = square(2*pi*4*tvec+pi,20); mod2(mod2 < 0) = 0;
data1 = sin(2*pi*f1*tvec); data1 = data1.*mod1 + 0.01*randn(size(tvec));
data2 = sin(2*pi*f2*tvec); data2 = data2.*mod2 + 0.01*randn(size(tvec)) ;
plot(tvec,data1,'r',tvec,data2,'b'); legend({'signal 1','signal 2'});
title('raw signals');
[P1,F] = pwelch(data1,hanning(wsize),wsize/2,length(data2),Fs);
[P2,F] = pwelch(data2,hanning(wsize),wsize/2,length(data2),Fs);
plot(F,abs(P1),'r',F,abs(P2),'b'); title('PSD');
[C,F] = mscohere(data1,data2,hanning(wsize),wsize/2,length(data1),Fs);
plot(F,C); title('coherence'); xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');
[ccf,lags] = xcorr(data1,data2,100,'coeff');
lags = lags.*(1./Fs); % convert samples to time
plot(lags,ccf); grid on;
xlabel('time lag (s)'); ylabel('correlation ({\itr})'); title('xcorr');

Note that the two signals both have 40Hz components in the PSD, but the times at which the 40Hz oscillation is present do not actually overlap between the two signals. With a window size of 50 samples (100ms) we accordingly do not see any coherence at 40Hz. If you look at the cross-correlation, there is nothing much different from zero in that 100ms window.

☛ What happens when you change the window size to 500ms?

This pair of signals is clearly a pathological case, but it should be clear that coherence estimates can depend dramatically on the window size used. In this case, the larger window connects the two signals that do not actually overlap in time, causing “spurious” coherence values.

Other points about coherence

  • Note that coherence is a symmetric measure, that is, the coherence for signals A and B is the same as that for B and A. This means that, as with a correlation coefficient, coherence has no sense of directionality. It cannot resolve whether A precedes or causes B, or vice versa.

Application to real data

Overall comparison of vStr-vStr and vStr-HC coherence

Let's load three simultaneously recorded LFPs, two from the same structure (but a different electrode, both in ventral striatum) and one from a different but anatomically related structure (hippocampus):

cfg = []; 
cfg.fc = cat(2,ExpKeys.goodGamma(1:2),ExpKeys.goodTheta(1));
cfg.label = {'vStr1','vStr2','HC'};
csc = LoadCSC(cfg);
csc = restrict(csc,ExpKeys.TimeOnTrack(1),ExpKeys.TimeOffTrack(2)); % restrict to task

Next we can compute the PSDs for each signal in the familiar manner, as well as the coherence between signal pairs of interest:

Fs = csc.cfg.hdr{1}.SamplingFrequency; 
wsize = 2048;
nS = length(csc.label);
for iS = 1:nS
    [P{iS},F{iS}] = pwelch(getd(csc,csc.label{iS}),hanning(wsize),wsize/2,2*wsize,Fs);
    for iS2 = iS+1:nS
        [C{iS,iS2},Fc{iS}] = mscohere(getd(csc,csc.label{iS}),getd(csc,csc.label{iS2}),hanning(wsize),wsize/2,2*wsize,Fs);
% plot
cols = 'kgm';
for iS = 1:nS
h(iS) = plot(F{iS},10*log10(P{iS}),cols(iS),'LineWidth',2); hold on;
set(gca,'XLim',[0 150],'XTick',0:25:150,'FontSize',12); grid on;
legend(h,csc.label,'Location','Northeast'); legend boxoff;
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)'); ylabel('Power (dB)'); 
subplot(122); clear h;
h(1) = plot(Fc{1},C{1,2},'LineWidth',2); hold on;
h(2) = plot(Fc{1},C{1,3},'r','LineWidth',2);
set(gca,'XLim',[0 150],'XTick',0:25:150,'FontSize',12); grid on;
legend(h,{'vStr1-vStr2','vStr1-HC'},'Location','Northeast'); legend boxoff;
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)'); ylabel('Coherence');

This should give:

You can see that the PSDs show the profile characteristic for each structure: HC has a clear theta peak, which is just about visible as a slight hump in vStr. vStr has large gamma components absent from HC.

The coherence between the to vStr signals is high overall compared to that between vStr and HC. The vStr gamma frequencies are particularly coherent within the vStr. This is what we would expect from plotting the raw signals alongside each other – there is a clear relationship, as you can readily verify.

However, it is more difficult to interpret if, say, a vStr-HC coherence value of 0.1 at 25Hz is meaningful. Such comparisons are easier to make by moving to FieldTrip.

Comparison of vStr-HC coherence between experimental conditions

Based on previous work (e.g. van der Meer and Redish, 2011) we might ask: is the coherence between hippocampus and ventral striatum modulated by task events? Here we will determine if there is a change in coherence between approach to the reward site and reward receipt. This entails estimating the coherence spectrum for two different task epochs, both aligned to the time at which the rat nosepoked in the reward well. FieldTrip is ideal for this, especially because we will be doing the same operations on multiple LFPs.

First, let's load the data. In your path shortcut, remember to add the FieldTrip path first, and then the lab codebase path, and also do a git pull.

cfg.fc = cat(2,ExpKeys.goodGamma(1:2),ExpKeys.goodTheta(1));
data = ft_read_neuralynx_interp(cfg.fc);
data.label = {'vStr1','vStr2','HC'};

We will segment the data into trials using a “trialfun”, a function that conforms to a specific FieldTrip output format (see the manual) when extracting task-specific timestamps. For this data set (see the paper for the details), the timestamps of interest are the times our subject (rat) noespoked into the reward receptacles, in anticipation of receiving a number of pellets.

%% trialify
data.hdr.Fs = data.fsample;
cfg = [];
cfg.trialfun = 'ft_trialfun_lineartracktone2';
cfg.trialdef.hdr = data.hdr;
cfg.trialdef.pre = 2.5; = 5; % define time window of interest
cfg.trialdef.eventtype = 'nosepoke'; % could be 'nosepoke', 'reward', 'cue'; this and what follows are all task-specific
cfg.trialdef.location = 'both'; % could be 'left', 'right', 'both'
cfg.trialdef.block = 'both'; % could be 'value', 'risk', 'both'
cfg.trialdef.cue = {'c1','c3','c5'}; % cell array with choice of elements {'c1','c3','c5','lo','hi'} (1, 3, 5 pellets; low and high risk)
[trl, event] = ft_trialfun_lineartracktone2(cfg);
cfg.trl = trl;
data_trl = ft_redefinetrial(cfg,data);

Next, we compute the trial-averaged cross-spectrum; note the similarity to the code used for computing spectrograms in a previous module – we have changed cfg.output from 'pow' to 'powandcsd' (csd is for for cross-spectral density):

cfg              = [];
cfg.output       = 'powandcsd';
cfg.method       = 'mtmconvol';
cfg.taper        = 'hanning';
cfg.foi          = 1:1:100; % frequencies to use
cfg.t_ftimwin    = 20./cfg.foi;  % frequency-dependent, 20 cycles per time window
cfg.keeptrials   = 'yes';      = {'vStr1', 'vStr2', 'HC1'};
cfg.channelcmb   = {'vStr2', 'HC1'; 'vStr2', 'vStr1'}; % channel pairs to compute csd for

cfg.toi          = -2:0.05:0; % pre-nosepoke baseline (time 0 is time of nosepoke)

TFR_pre = ft_freqanalysis(cfg, data_trl);

Now we can compute the coherence from the cross-spectrum and the indvidual spectra:

cfg            = [];
cfg.method     = 'coh'; % compute coherence; other measures of connectivity are also available
fd             = ft_connectivityanalysis(cfg,TFR_pre);

And finally plot the results – for this we are bypassing ft's built-in plotter so that we can add some custom touches more easily:

cols = 'rgb';
for iCmb = 1:size(fd.labelcmb,1)
    lbl{iCmb} = cat(2,fd.labelcmb{iCmb,1},'-',fd.labelcmb{iCmb,2});
    temp = nanmean(sq(fd.cohspctrm(iCmb,:,:)),2);
    h(iCmb) = plot(fd.freq,temp,cols(iCmb));
    hold on;

☛ The resulting coherence spectra are for the pre-nosepoke period (see cfg.toi in the frequency analysis step above). Also compute the coherence spectrum for the post-nosepoke period (0 to 2 seconds).

As you will see, a few differences in the HC-vStr coherence between the two windows are visible, such as the elevated 15Hz coherence during reward approach. To get a sense of where this may be coming from (artifact or biological? a single trial or reliable?) it would be helpful to plot the raw LFPs aligned to the nosepoke time; of course, more sessions would need to be analyzed as well to obtain errorbars on the data.

Notice that in our trial selection, we included trials on which 1 food pellet, 3 food pellets, and 5 food pellets were all included together (cfg.trialdef.cue = {'c1','c3','c5'};).

☛ Compare the coherence spectra for the 1-pellet and 5-pellet trials. What do you notice?

Time-frequency coherence analysis

A limitation of the coherence analyses up to this point has been that, like Welch's PSD, they have been averages. Just like the spectrogram provided a time-frequency view of signal power, we can attempt to compute a coherogram, coherence as a function of time and frequency.

In fact, the previous steps in FieldTrip already did this, so we can plot it (note, this is the “post-nosepoke” epoch):

iC = 1; % which signal pair to plot
lbl = [fd.labelcmb{1,:}]; % get the label of this pair
imagesc(fd.time,fd.freq,sq(fd.cohspctrm(iC,:,:))); axis xy; colorbar
xlabel('time (s)'); ylabel('Frequency (Hz)'); title(lbl);

You should get:

As you can see, the coherence at higher frequencies in particular looks very noisy. These “spurious” high coherence bins commonly show up when estimating coherence, typically when one or both signals have little power in certain frequencies.

☛ Change the time window to a fixed 1s. How does the coherogram change?

We can improve the robustness of our estimate by giving up some time resolution. Of course, averaging over more trials is another approach; other spectral estimation methods such as wavelets can also improve things (if you are interested in this, there is a nice MATLAB tutorial on wavelet coherence here).

Beyond coherence

Coherence is only one of many measures that attempt to characterize the relationship between LFPs. A glance at the documentation for ft_connectivityanalysis() reveals a who's who of popular neuroscience tools for assessing functional connectivity. A review of these methods is beyond the scope of this module, but in general they address some of the limitations of the coherence measure. For instance:

  • Phase slope index (PSI), Granger causality, and partial directed coherence (PDC) are directional measures that under certain circumstances can capture the direction of the flow of information between two signals. We will discuss a few of these in this module, below.
  • Weighted phase lag index (WPLI) can exclude contributions from a volume-conducted source common to both signals
  • Pairwise phase consistency (PPC) addresses some statistical issues of how coherence estimates are affected by the amount of data

For an illustration of how these improved methods can give a more reliable estimate of interactions than coherence, let's give pairwise phase consistency a try:

cfg            = [];
cfg.method     = 'ppc';
fd             = ft_connectivityanalysis(cfg,TFR_post);

☛ Plot the coherogram as above, changing cohspectrm to ppcspctrm in the plotting code. You should get (again for the post-nosepoke epoch):

Note that some of the spurious high-frequency events have now been eliminated. In general, however, estimates of coherence and other connectivity measures require relatively large amounts of data to obtain – more than the small number of trials from one single session considered here.

Amplitude cross-correlation

As should be clear from the discussion of coherence so far, it is a non-directional measure – it doesn't address whether signal A leads or lags signal B. There are many methods out there that can be used to address this directionality question. One that you already have the tools to perform is computing the amplitude cross-correlation between two signals, filtered in a specific frequency band. Looking at the lower left panel in the figure at the top of the page, you can see that the amplitude envelope (red line) is clearly correlated between the two signals. Computing the cross-correlation would establish at what time lead (or lag) that correlation is maximal; a peak offset from zero would indicate a specific temporal asymmetry suggesting one signal leads the other.

We will not cover this method in detail here since you already know how to compute amplitude envelopes and cross-correlations; however, if you'd like to delve more into this, example code that performs this analysis, including a very nice shuffling procedure to determine chance level, can be found on the vandermeerlab papers repository here. A recent paper introducing the method is Adhikari et al. (2010).

Granger causality: introduction

The concept of Granger causality ( Granger 1969) is simple: if a signal $X$ “Granger-causes” signal $Y$, then knowing the value of $X$ improves your ability to predict $Y$ beyond what can be predicted from the history of $Y$ alone (see also Seth 2007). Thus, Granger-causality is inferred based on the relative fits of statistical models applied to time series data.

More mathematically:

\[ M_1: Y(t) = \sum_{l = 1}^{L} a_l Y(t-l) + \epsilon_1 \\ M_2: Y(t) = \sum_{l = 1}^{L} a'_l Y(t-l) + b'_l X(t-l) + \epsilon_2 \]

If $M_2$ provides a better fit to the data (best predicts the value of $Y(t)$) then $X$ is said to Granger-cause $Y$. The parameter $L$ indicates the number of samples into the past that are included in the model; as was the case in our discussion of filters, the order of the model refers to how many past samples are included (i.e. the value of $L$).

In general, the above models $M$ are examples of autoregressive (AR) models: the dependent variable $Y(t)$ is regressed against linear combinations of past values of that variable itself, where the coefficients $a$ and $b$ can be thought of as the regression coefficients or weights of each past value. You may also encounter the term vector autoregressive (VAR) models, this is simply the multivariate extension of AR models. $M_2$ above is a VAR model since it has two variables. There is a large literature on (V)AR models, since it is a major tool in forecasting of all sorts of things ranging from the stock market to the weather.

Generating artificial data

To explore how to fit AR models to data, it's a good idea to start with some artificial data of which we know the structure. Earlier in this module we did so “by hand”, but here we will use FieldTrip's useful ft_connectivitysimulation():

cfg             = [];
cfg.ntrials     = 1000;
cfg.triallength = 5; % in seconds
cfg.fsample     = 1000;
cfg.nsignal     = 2; % two signals, X and Y, which start out as identical white noise
cfg.method      = 'linear_mix';
cfg.mix         = [0; 0]; % multiply white noise for X and Y by this
cfg.delay       = [0; 0]; % Y is n samples delayed relative to X (both 0)
cfg.bpfilter    = 'no';
cfg.absnoise    = 1; % add independent noise to both signals, so now X and Y should be independent
data            = ft_connectivitysimulation(cfg);
data.label      = {'X','Y'};

The above code generates 1000 trials of 5 seconds each of independent white noise for two signals $X$ and $Y$. We do so in a somewhat roundabout way, by first setting the common signal in A and B to zero for each (cfg.mix = [0; 0]) and then adding independent noise of amplitude 1 to each (cfg.absnoise = 1). Why this is so will become clear later when we generate more interesting combinations of signals.

☛ Verify that indeed the two signals X and Y are uncorrelated, as one would expect from independently generated white noise. One way to do so is to compute a correlation coefficient for each trial and plot the distribution of resulting correlation coefficients (use corrcoef()).

Next, we can fit our AR model:

cfg_ar         = [];
cfg_ar.order   = 3;
cfg_ar.toolbox = 'bsmart';
mdata          = ft_mvaranalysis(cfg_ar, data);

Note the order parameter, which specifies how far back to estimate coefficients for (the $L$ parameter in the equations above). Although this is FieldTrip code, it uses the BSMART toolbox under the hood to fit the model. The ft_mvaranalysis() function has some useful options we aren't using right now, such as the ability to estimate errorbars with the jackknife option. This takes a long time, however, so we don't do this now.

What we are interested in are the coefficients $a$ and $b$, i.e. the extent that we can predict each signal separately based on its own past, and then how much that prediction can be improved by knowledge of the other signal.

To plot these coefficients, we can do:

figure; subplot(221)
labels = {'X->X','X->Y';'Y->X','Y->Y'}; cols = 'rgbc';
nP = 0;
for iI = 1:cfg.nsignal   
    for iJ = 1:cfg.nsignal
        nP = nP + 1;
        h(nP) = plot(1:cfg_ar.order,sq(mdata.coeffs(iI,iJ,:)),cols(nP));
        hold on;
set(gca,'FontSize',18,'LineWidth',1); box off;
xlabel('lag (samples)'); ylabel('coefficient');
title('cfg.delay = [0; 0];');

You should see that the coefficient values are very small (on the order of $10^{-4}$). This is what we expect from signals that we know to be uncorrelated; these values should not be statistically different from zero, which would mean that we cannot predict anything about our signal based on its past – the definition of white noise!

Let's now create some signals that do have some structure:

cfg.mix         = [0.8; 0.8]; % X and Y are identical white noise with amplitude 0.8
cfg.absnoise    = 0.2; % add amplitude 0.2 *independent* noise
cfg.delay       = [0; 2]; % advance Y 2 samples relative to X
data            = ft_connectivitysimulation(cfg);
data.label      = {'X','Y'};

☛ Fit the VAR model again, and plot the coefficients in the next subplot. You should get something like:

Note how for the delay case, we correctly estimate that X can be predicted from Y, at the expected delay of 2 samples.

It is important to be aware of the limitations of Granger causality. The term “Granger-causes” is often used to indicate the inherently descriptive nature of VAR models, which cannot distinguish true causality from a number of alternative scenarios. Prominent among these is the possibility of a common input Z affecting both X and Y, but with different time lags. X may then “Granger-cause” Y, without any direct anatomical connection between them. A different, all-too common case is when signals X and Y have different signal-to-noise ratios; we will highlight this issue in the next section. More generally, it is unclear what conclusions can be drawn from Granger causality in systems that with recurrent (feedback) connections, which are of course ubiquitous in the brain – a nice paper demonstrating and discussing this is Kispersky et al. 2011.

Spectrally resolved Granger causality

Given how ubiquitous oscillations are in neural data, it is often informative to not fit VAR models directly in the time domain (as we did in the previous section) but go to the frequency domain. Intuitively, spectrally resolved Granger causality measures how much of the power in $X$, not accounted for by $X$ itself, can be attributed to $Y$ ( technical paper). To explore this, we'll generate some more artificial data:

nTrials = 1000;
cfg             = [];
cfg.ntrials     = nTrials;
cfg.triallength = 5;
cfg.fsample     = 1000;
cfg.nsignal     = 2;
cfg.method      = 'linear_mix';
cfg.mix         = [0.5; 0.5];
cfg.delay       = [0; 4];
cfg.bpfilter    = 'yes';
cfg.bpfreq      = [50 100]; % white noise gets filtered in this frequency band
cfg.absnoise    = 0.5; % add independent noise to both signals
data            = ft_connectivitysimulation(cfg);
data.label      = {'X','Y'};

Note that we are now using the bpfilter cfg option, which filters the original white noise in the specified frequency band. Thus, X and Y are 50% identical signal with frequency content between 50 and 100 Hz, and 50% independent noise. (You can inspect what this looks like by doing ft_databrowser([],data)).

Next, we perform the frequency decomposition, FieldTrip-style:

cfg_TFR = []; = {'X','Y'};
cfg_TFR.channelcmb = {'X' 'Y'};
cfg_TFR.method = 'mtmfft';
cfg_TFR.output = 'fourier';
cfg_TFR.foi = 1:1:150;
cfg_TFR.taper = 'hanning';
TFR = ft_freqanalysis(cfg_TFR,data);

Now we can compute the Granger spectra:

cfg_G = [];
cfg_G.method = 'granger'; = {'X','Y'};
cfg_G.channelcmb = {'X' 'Y'};
C = ft_connectivityanalysis(cfg_G,TFR);

…and plot the results:

for iP = 1:4
    set(gca,'FontSize',14,'YLim',[0 0.5]);

You should get something like

These panels show how much of the power in X (or Y) can be predicted based on itself, or the other signal. You can see that the top right panel (Y→X) has higher coefficients than the reverse (X→Y), consistent with the 4-sample advancement of Y relative to X.

☛ Why are there non-zero coefficients for the X→Y direction? Test your hypothesis with artificial data.

Now, let's consider the following case:

cfg             = [];
cfg.ntrials     = nTrials;
cfg.triallength = 5;
cfg.fsample     = 1000;
cfg.nsignal     = 2;
cfg.method      = 'linear_mix';
cfg.mix         = [1; 0.5]; % X bigger than Y
cfg.delay       = [0; 0];
cfg.bpfilter    = 'yes';
cfg.bpfreq      = [50 100]; % white noise gets filtered in this frequency band
cfg.absnoise    = 0.5; % add independent noise to both signals
data            = ft_connectivitysimulation(cfg);
data.label      = {'X','Y'};

Note that $X$ is the same signal as $Y$, but twice as large; there is no delay between them. Independent noise is then added to both $X$ and $Y$ as before.

☛ Compute the Granger cross-spectra for these signals as was done above.

You should see that X Granger-causes Y.

☛ How is this possible, given that we generated X and Y to have zero delay?

This case, in which two (near-)identical signals have different signal-to-noise ratios, is very common in neuroscience. As you have seen, Granger causality can be easily fooled by this.

How can we detect if we are dealing with a Granger-causality false positive like this? An elegant way is to reverse both signals and test again; if the Granger asymmetry persists after this, we have a tell-tale of a signal-to-noise Granger artifact.

☛ Reverse the two signals and compute Granger cross-spectra, both for the zero-delay artifact case and for the true causal case above. Verify that this reverse-Granger test accurately distinguishes the two cases. This paper discusses these issues in more detail and has thoughtful discussion.

Phase-slope index

If we have a situation such as the above, it is possible that a true lag or lead between two signals is obscured by different signal-to-noise ratios. If such a case is detected by the reverse-Granger analysis, how can we proceed with identifying the true delay?

A possible solution is offered by the analysis of phase slopes: the idea that for a given lead or lag between two signals, the phase lag (or lead) should systematically depend on frequency ( Nolte et al. (2008), see also precedents in the literature such as Schoffelen et al. (2005)).

Catanese and van der Meer (2016) diagram the idea as follows:

In the example in (A) above, the red signal always leads the blue signal by 5 ms, which results in a different phase lag across frequencies (20, 25 and 33.3 Hz in this example). This is because 5ms is a much bigger slice of a full oscillation cycle at 33.3Hz than it is at 25Hz; the bottom panel shows the linear relationship between phase lag and frequency for the above examples, resulting in a positive slope for the red-blue phase difference indicating a red signal lead.

(B) shows the raw phase differences for an example real data session in the top panel: note that the phase lag as a function of frequency contains approximately linear regions in the “low-gamma” (45-65 Hz, green) and “high-gamma” (70-90 Hz, red) frequency bands, with slopes in opposite directions. The phase slope (middle panel) is the derivative of the raw phase lag, and the reversal of the phase slope sign around 65-70 Hz indicates that high and low gamma are associated with opposite directionality in the vStr-mPFC system, with vStr leading for low gamma and mPFC leading for high gamma oscillations. The bottom panel shows the phase slope index (PSI) which normalizes the raw phase slope by its standard deviation.

Thus, to summarize, the phase slope index (PSI) is a normalized form of the phase slope – obtained by dividing the raw phase slope at each frequency by its standard deviation (estimated using a bootstrap). The phase slope itself is obtained by taking the derivative (slope) of the raw phase differences across frequencies; as discussed above, these raw phase differences can be obtained by estimating the phase (angle) of the cross-spectrum.

The time lag (or lead) between two signals given a phase slope is:

\begin{equation} t_{a-b} = [\frac{\phi_{a-b}(f+df) - \phi_{a-b}(f)}{df}]/ 360^{\circ} \label{eq:psi} \end{equation}

where $t_{a-b}$ is the time lag (or lead) in seconds between signals $a$ and $b$, to be inferred from the phase differences $\phi_{a-b}$ (in degrees) observed at frequencies $f$ and $f+df$. For instance, given a phase difference $\phi_{a-b} = 45^{\circ}$ between signals $a$ and $b$ at $f = 25$Hz, and $\phi_{a-b} = 36^{\circ}$ at $f = 20$Hz, $t_{a-b} = [(45-36)/(25-20)]/360 = 5$ms (the example in panel A above). As $df \to 0$, the fraction shown in square brackets above corresponds to the derivative $\phi_{a-b}'(f)$, i.e. the phase slope. Positive time lags indicate that $a$ leads $b$.

To test how this works, let's generate two signals with an ambiguous Granger-relationship:

nTrials = 1000;
cfg             = [];
cfg.ntrials     = nTrials;
cfg.triallength = 5;
cfg.fsample     = 1000;
cfg.nsignal     = 2;
cfg.method      = 'linear_mix';
cfg.mix         = [1; 0.3]; % X bigger than Y
cfg.delay       = [0; 4];
cfg.bpfilter    = 'yes';
cfg.bpfreq      = [50 100]; % white noise gets filtered in low gamma band
cfg.absnoise    = 0.5; % add independent noise to both signals
data            = ft_connectivitysimulation(cfg);
data.label      = {'X','Y'};

Note that Y leads X, but X has larger amplitude than Y.

☛ Verify that according to the Granger spectra, there is no evidence to support an asymemtric (Granger-causal) relationship between Y and X. Since we generated the signals with a 4 sample lead for Y, we know this to be incorrect.

Now, let's compute the phase slope. We start with the Fourier decomposition, as before:

cfg_TFR = []; = {'X','Y'};
cfg_TFR.channelcmb = {'X' 'Y'};
cfg_TFR.method = 'mtmfft';
cfg_TFR.output = 'fourier';
cfg_TFR.foi = 1:1:150;
cfg_TFR.taper = 'hanning';
TFR = ft_freqanalysis(cfg_TFR,data);

But now, we use a different method for the connectivity analysis:

cfg_psi = [];
cfg_psi.method = 'psi';
cfg_psi.bandwidth = 8; % number of frequencies to compute slope over = {'X','Y'};
cfg_psi.channelcmb = {'X' 'Y'};
C = ft_connectivityanalysis(cfg_psi,TFR);

We plot the phase slope between Y and X:

xlabel('Frequency'); ylabel('Phase slope');

The positive phase slope correctly identified that Y leads X.

☛ What are the units on the vertical axis?


★ If you have your own data with at least two signals that you suspect may be related, identify an appropriate functional connectivity analysis and apply it to the data. Comment on why the chosen method was used.

★ The “theta” rhythm, which is about 8 Hz in moving rodents, is important in coordinating the spike timing of hippocampal neurons. However, theta frequencies also appear in LFPs recorded from other brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum. One hypothesis is that those areas simply “inherit” theta activity from their hippocampal inputs. Test this idea using data from R020, which has electrodes in hippocampus and ventral striatum, and your chosen connectivity analysis method.


Matthewimmet, 2019/11/13 01:04

Digital baby <a href=>Monitor</a> video

Shawnfor, 2019/11/14 09:32

Bay area <a href=>Wedding</a> videographer

Craiggox, 2019/11/16 07:11

<a href=>Video</a> copyright

Carlosblell, 2019/11/17 07:10

<a href=>Move</a> it video

Billyviato, 2019/11/18 17:12

Cardiopulmonary <a href=>Resuscitation</a> video

StephenTrita, 2019/11/20 03:26

Change management <a href=>Videos</a>

Kevintip, 2019/11/21 06:02

Video <a href=>Hiring</a>

Williamleank, 2019/11/21 17:35

Free video <a href=>Calls</a> online

Ervinpes, 2019/11/22 09:45

<a href=>Cartoon</a> funny video

AlbertEngam, 2019/11/23 16:10

International <a href=>Video</a> conferencing

MichealGuEsy, 2019/11/24 10:27

Video security <a href=>Camera</a> systems

Russellspoli, 2019/11/24 21:15

Free video calling <a href=>Online</a>

TimothyTar, 2019/11/25 07:03

Deposition <a href=>Videos</a>

Jamesnuape, 2019/11/25 17:48

Video of <a href=>Stock</a> market

Jimmylal, 2019/11/26 08:25

Captured <a href=>Video</a>

Stephenjom, 2019/11/26 21:28

Tyco <a href=>Video</a> camera

JosephPlump, 2019/11/27 07:40

Advertise <a href=>Videos</a>

LewisCep, 2019/11/27 20:12

<a href=>Audio</a> video innovators lafayette la

KennethEnuff, 2019/11/28 09:39

Free business <a href=>Videos</a>

JosephTok, 2019/11/28 20:36

Denver <a href=>Videographers</a>

BriantIree, 2019/11/29 15:36

Create your own <a href=>3d</a> video game

MatthewNeams, 2019/11/30 01:17


Haroldneawl, 2019/11/30 12:32

Workplace <a href=>Video</a>

Robertfum, 2019/12/01 11:42

Arc <a href=>Flash</a> videos

OdellWek, 2019/12/01 20:48

S4 <a href=>Video</a>

KennethJeath, 2019/12/02 12:43

<a href=>Make</a> video loop

model shoes women 2013 lv, 2021/05/11 09:38

ブルガリネックレスコピー店舗 Asahi Industrial Fan louis vuitton handbags online shopping cheap

cheap men new air jordan 7 french blue sale, 2021/05/11 13:18

China Fine Sandblasting Sand シャネルバッグコピー店舗 air jordan 1 black white

China Universal Auto Windshield Wiper, 2021/05/11 16:24

高品質ディオールネックレスコピー louis vuitton strap China Universal Auto Windshield Wiper

cheap air jordan 11 north carolina, 2021/05/11 17:52

ブランドコピーmcm Bone China Serving Bowls With Lids Supplier air jordan 18 retro og cheap

louis vuitton raspail mm, 2021/05/12 09:33

セリーヌ財布ブラントコピー代引き Cnc Fiber Laser Cutting Machine gucci belt all black

Adults Pampers Sale, 2021/05/12 11:21

discount louis vuitton handbag コピーブランドどこで買う Adults Pampers Sale

Electronic Tag Manufacturers, 2021/05/12 13:11

cheap air jordan retro 5 oreos 2013 バリー靴コピー店舗 Electronic Tag Manufacturers

speedy 35 louis vuitton price, 2021/05/12 15:02

エルメスピアスコピー優良サイト Colorimetric & sample cup speedy 35 louis vuitton price

air jordan 10 retro gs, 2021/05/12 17:49

Candy Tin Box ブランドコピーtシャツ air jordan 10 retro gs

ディオールピアススーパーコピー販売店, 2021/05/12 19:42

louis vuitton new purses Vertical Cantilever Pumps 本物と同じグッチベルトコピー

N級品ドルチェガッバーナ靴コピー, 2021/05/13 09:10

Liquid Carbopol louis vuitton sneakers online shop japan 高品質ブルガリバッグコピー

セリーヌバッグコピー代引き, 2021/05/13 11:55

3ml Glas Tube jordan retro ii ボッテガヴェネタバッグコピー

ルイヴィトン指輪コピー, 2021/05/13 13:42

Fuel Station Price louis vuitton epi speedy 25 ロエベバッグコピー店舗

new louis vuitton purses discount sale, 2021/05/13 17:22

N級品ミュウミュウ靴コピー Mower Blades For 42 Inch Deck louis vuitton 6 key holder vernis

Bamboo Pallet For Concrete Block Machine, 2021/05/14 03:39

N級品シャネルネックレスコピー boys air jordan shoes Bamboo Pallet For Concrete Block Machine

ブランドコピー, 2021/05/14 07:47

cheap lv hand bag China Suppliers スーパーコピーブランド見分け

クロムハーツサングラスコピー店舗, 2021/05/14 11:28

sell louis vuitton Galaxy Black Marble 本物と同じクロムハーツベルトコピー

コピーブランドメンズ, 2021/05/14 13:15

lv belt buckle store Access Floor Pedestal ロエベベルトコピー販売店

air jordan vi xvii retro for cheap, 2021/05/14 15:04

3 Ply Face Mask シャネル時計コピー cheap jordan 4 retro mars

草榴网, 2021/05/14 15:54

ヴィトンケーススーパーコピー代引き selling a louis vuitton belt 草榴网

lv outlet on cheap, 2021/05/14 17:45

シャネルネックレスコピー通販店 赌厅网投 mens louis vuitton sneakers

エルメス靴コピー, 2021/05/14 21:28

luxury louis vuitton handbags Advertising Wristbands ブランド財布コピー通販

エムシーエム財布スーパーコピー激安, 2021/05/15 09:48

louis vuitton shopstyle 7 - Antifungal Zinc Pyrithione エムシーエム財布スーパーコピー激安

air jordan vi gs, 2021/05/15 11:29

エムシーエムバッグコピー Cement Grinders cheap air jordan heels pumps

Custom Hoodie Design, 2021/05/15 15:16

louis vuitton speedy roses エルメス靴スーパーコピー Custom Hoodie Design

ジバンシィバッグコピー優良サイト, 2021/05/15 19:04

louis vuitton alma bb n90379 Four Corner Welding Nut フェラガモ財布コピー販売店

エルメスサングラスコピー販売店, 2021/05/15 19:55

louis vuitton sunglasses in italy Heavy Duty Conveyor Rollers エルメスサングラスコピー販売店

air force jordans 4, 2021/05/16 11:49

ブランドトリーバーチ財布コピー Cement Roof Sheet Waterproofing cheap air jordan 5 white black metallic silver radiant green

カルティエピアスコピー国内発送, 2021/05/16 13:49

coupon for lv outlet Blood Infusion Set コーチ帽子スーパーコピー激安

Carbide Burrs, 2021/05/17 06:00

cheap air jordan 11 low infrared 23 Carbide Burrs

African Fashion Designs Dress, 2021/05/17 09:02

vuitton online shop African Fashion Designs Dress

N66 Tyre Cord Fabric, 2021/05/17 13:36

louis vuitton vernis alma N66 Tyre Cord Fabric

Clearance Of Export Cargo, 2021/05/17 15:27

retro shoes jordans Clearance Of Export Cargo

Semi Automatic Corrugated Paper Box Folding And Gluing, 2021/05/17 17:22

jordan retro 9 kilroy pack Semi Automatic Corrugated Paper Box Folding And Gluing

Led Backlight Tv, 2021/05/17 23:55

cheap gucci book bags for sale Led Backlight Tv

Ice Cream Maker For Kids, 2021/05/18 09:26

louis vuitton epi grenelle Ice Cream Maker For Kids

8ml Nail Polish Bottle, 2021/05/18 11:15

air jordan son of mars game royal pimento tour yellow cement grey pine green for cheap 8ml Nail Polish Bottle

louis vuitton damier alma pm, 2021/05/18 17:48

CNC Laser louis vuitton for men bags

replica lv handbags, 2021/05/19 07:42

Ball Valve BSP thread louis vuitton online store official

louis vuitton shoes malaysia price, 2021/05/19 13:26

Column Tail Lift louis vuitton delightful mm

Pp Plastic Bag, 2021/05/19 17:15

authentic louis vuitton jewelry watches Pp Plastic Bag Supplier

Bottle Lantern, 2021/05/19 19:10

louis vuitton don shoes China Bottle Lantern

Lab Rubber Internal Mixer, 2021/05/20 05:49

Lab Rubber Internal Mixer

4d Hifu Liposonix Anti-Wrinkle Machine, 2021/05/20 11:30

4d Hifu Liposonix Anti-Wrinkle Machine

Ge C Life Bulb Supplier, 2021/05/20 17:02

Ge C Life Bulb

black PVC board, 2021/05/20 17:52

black PVC board

Products, 2021/05/20 19:43


Industrial Caster Wheels, 2021/05/21 13:26

Industrial Caster Wheels

3d Rf Body Slimming Machine, 2021/05/21 15:16

3d Rf Body Slimming Machine https://www.nubwaymed.com3d-rf-body-slimming-machine/

Handwashing fluid, 2021/05/21 17:07

Handwashing fluid

Industrial Crate Mould, 2021/05/21 17:56

Industrial Crate Mould

440a Flat Bar, 2021/05/22 05:29

440a Flat Bar

Fireproof Insulation Sheets, 2021/05/22 09:13

Fireproof Insulation Sheets

Cnc Wire Edm Controller, 2021/05/22 11:03

Cnc Wire Edm Controller

High Steel Castings Price, 2021/05/22 13:43

High Steel Castings Price

Pvc Cover Plastic Sheet, 2021/05/23 07:24

Pvc Cover Plastic Sheet

Injection Common Rail Control Valve, 2021/05/23 09:11

Injection Common Rail Control Valve

3d Laser Marking, 2021/05/23 11:02

3d Laser Marking

股本赌博, 2021/05/23 11:52


Hgh Frag 176-191, 2021/05/23 15:37

Hgh Frag 176-191

Climate Cover+Piglet, 2021/05/23 19:43

Climate Cover+Piglet

Basic Polo Shirt, 2021/05/24 11:49

Basic Polo Shirt

adjustable floor lamp, 2021/05/24 13:44

adjustable floor lamp

Antioxidant Food List, 2021/05/24 15:40

Antioxidant Food List

Plastic Material Pc, 2021/05/24 19:33

Plastic Material Pc

A Colorful Winter丨3TREES Releases 2021 Color Trends and Rising Stars!, 2021/05/25 09:50

A Colorful Winter丨3TREES Releases 2021 Color Trends and Rising Stars!

DIN580 Eye Bolts, 2021/05/25 11:47

DIN580 Eye Bolts

Heat Press Machine, 2021/05/25 13:43

Heat Press Machine

Bathroom Stool Mould, 2021/05/25 17:42

Bathroom Stool Mould

Acrylic Ball, 2021/05/25 19:43

Acrylic Ball

320d Air Cleaner Assy Filter Housing For Mazzdaa - Air Cleaner Assy, 2021/05/26 01:55

320d Air Cleaner Assy Filter Housing For Mazzdaa - Air Cleaner Assy

Popcorn Cardigan, 2021/05/26 09:55

Popcorn Cardigan

Rp/Hp/Uhp Graphite Electrode, 2021/05/26 11:53

Rp/Hp/Uhp Graphite Electrode

Anesthesiology, 2021/05/26 13:50


Truck, 2021/05/27 05:14


Hand Extruder For Welding Plastic Pipe, 2021/05/27 07:37

China Hand Extruder For Welding Plastic Pipe

Lawn Mower Seats Supplier, 2021/05/27 09:34

Lawn Mower Seats

Chinese Coptis, 2021/05/27 11:29

Chinese Coptis

Good Car Vacuum Cleaner, 2021/05/27 13:25

Good Car Vacuum Cleaner

China Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Bolus Uses, 2021/05/27 15:22

Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Bolus Uses Supplier

Teflon Block, 2021/05/27 17:18

Teflon Block

Single Sphere Rubber Expansion Joints, 2021/05/28 09:07

Single Sphere Rubber Expansion Joints

Positioner Pneumatic Control Valve, 2021/05/28 12:36

Positioner Pneumatic Control Valve

iPhone 11 Pro Oled Display Panel, 2021/05/28 15:53

iPhone 11 Pro Oled Display Panel

Iridescent Film for fairy wings, 2021/05/28 17:50

Iridescent Film for fairy wings

Gifts Ideas Imp&Exp Co., Ltd., 2021/05/29 07:24

Gifts Ideas Imp&Exp Co., Ltd.

Heavy Truck Trailer, 2021/05/29 09:23

Heavy Truck Trailer

Electric Quail Egg Peeler, 2021/05/29 15:14

Electric Quail Egg Peeler

Bamboo Box, 2021/05/29 23:32

Bamboo Box

Bulk Dog Biscuits, 2021/05/30 01:58

Bulk Dog Biscuits

Ceiling Speaker, 2021/05/30 13:26

Ceiling Speaker

Membrane Switch Panel, 2021/05/30 15:21

Membrane Switch Panel

Make Up Bag Cosmetics Bag, 2021/05/30 17:18

Make Up Bag Cosmetics Bag

Galvanized Pipe Coupling, 2021/05/30 19:13

Galvanized Pipe Coupling

Nichrome Wire Heating Element, 2021/05/30 21:16

Nichrome Wire Heating Element

5d Hifu Machine, 2021/05/31 11:01

5d Hifu Machine

Compost Windrow Turner, 2021/05/31 16:01

Compost Windrow Turner

Cinnamon Bark Extract Benefits, 2021/05/31 17:59

Cinnamon Bark Extract Benefits

4 Inch Diesel Water Pump, 2021/05/31 23:48

4 Inch Diesel Water Pump

curing light, 2021/06/01 13:40

curing light

glossy glitter powder PU leather, 2021/06/01 17:41

glossy glitter powder PU leather

Impeller Stainless Steel, 2021/06/01 19:43

Impeller Stainless Steel

Manual Filter Press, 2021/06/02 13:48

Manual Filter Press

Best Cop Thriller Movies, 2021/06/02 15:49

Best Cop Thriller Movies

Dark Wood Venetian Blinds, 2021/06/03 07:32

Dark Wood Venetian Blinds

Plastic Moulded Parts, 2021/06/03 13:28

Plastic Moulded Parts

200ul Sterile Pipette Tip, 2021/06/03 15:44

200ul Sterile Pipette Tip

2x1 Hdmi Switcher, 2021/06/04 15:32

2×1 Hdmi Switcher

Omega Load Cell, 2021/06/04 17:29

Omega Load Cell

Convection Oven Accessories, 2021/06/04 19:32

Convection Oven Accessories

Outside Online, 2021/06/04 23:57

We All Deserve a Spring Break This Year

Climbing Net For Plants, 2021/06/05 07:50

Climbing Net For Plants

Rock Drill Bits, 2021/06/05 11:41

Rock Drill Bits

Bff Couple Shirt, 2021/06/05 13:41

Bff Couple Shirt

Movable House, 2021/06/05 15:33

Movable House

SHOPPING CATEGORIES, 2021/06/05 19:24


China Pumping Machine, 2021/06/06 09:08

China Pumping Machine

China 2020 Women Sunglasses, 2021/06/06 11:57

China 2020 Women Sunglasses

Garden Decoration Catalogs Supplier, 2021/06/06 13:52

Garden Decoration Catalogs Supplier

Automated Pallet Transfer Car Supplier, 2021/06/06 15:51

Automated Pallet Transfer Car

Cat Scratcher Tower, 2021/06/06 17:41

Cat Scratcher Tower

Allyl Pentaerythritol, 2021/06/06 19:37

Allyl Pentaerythritol

Dropshipping Shopify Uk Supplier, 2021/06/07 09:31

Dropshipping Shopify Uk Supplier

Ursolic Acid Health Benefits, 2021/06/07 11:25

Ursolic Acid Health Benefits

Army Rucksack Supplier, 2021/06/07 13:20

Army Rucksack

3520 Bkl Tube for Transformer, 2021/06/08 11:16

3520 Bkl Tube for Transformer

5 Herb Grinder, 2021/06/08 13:13

5 Herb Grinder

Гид в Китае, 2021/06/08 15:08

Гид в Китае

Pressure Reducing Valve For Soot Blowing Reducing Station Of Air Pre-Heater, 2021/06/08 17:03

Pressure Reducing Valve For Soot Blowing Reducing Station Of Air Pre-Heater

Cnc Machining Materials, 2021/06/08 23:29

Cnc Machining Materials

?in Noel ?ikolata Hediye Kutular? Fabrika ve üreticiler, Tedarik?iler Do?rudan Fiyat, 2021/06/09 07:38


AV SEXY, 2021/06/09 09:43


BXL, 2021/06/10 09:37

Cina Green Box profumo fabbrica e produttori, fornitori prezzo diretto

赌厅网投, 2021/06/10 11:35


性爱欧美视频, 2021/06/10 15:39


BXL, 2021/06/10 17:28

China Nette Geschenkboxen Fabrik und Hersteller, Lieferanten Direktpreis

股本赌博, 2021/06/10 19:26


日本AV性爱电影, 2021/06/11 09:09


GuangZhou Yumi Garment Co., Ltd., 2021/06/11 13:04

GuangZhou Yumi Garment Co., Ltd.

Home Audio Amplifier Price, 2021/06/11 19:09

Home Audio Amplifier Price

Eavesdrop Detector, 2021/06/11 19:59

Eavesdrop Detector

Base Plates, 2021/06/12 17:11

Base Plates

China PVC Floor, 2021/06/12 19:09

China PVC Floor

0.0003” Aluminum Foil/Glassmat, 2021/06/12 21:07

0.0003” Aluminum Foil/Glassmat

Solar System Panel, 2021/06/13 03:24

Solar System Panel

Inch Size Cylindrical Roller Bearings, 2021/06/13 07:36

Inch Size Cylindrical Roller Bearings

629zz Bearing, 2021/06/13 09:33

629zz Bearing

Nylon Belt Joint Vulcanizer, 2021/06/13 11:31

Nylon Belt Joint Vulcanizer

Artillery Shells Fireworks, 2021/06/14 09:10

Artillery Shells Fireworks

Black Oxide Hex Bolt, 2021/06/14 11:09

Black Oxide Hex Bolt

Light Yellow Polo Shirt, 2021/06/14 13:13

Light Yellow Polo Shirt

Hoover Silent Energy Vacuum Cleaner, 2021/06/14 15:38

Hoover Silent Energy Vacuum Cleaner

Magnetic Damp, 2021/06/14 17:16

Magnetic Damp

Candy Jar Factory, 2021/06/14 21:19

Candy Jar Factory

100% Cotton Polo Shirt, 2021/06/14 23:47

100% Cotton Polo Shirt

Farm Floor Play Mat, 2021/06/15 15:57

Farm Floor Play Mat

Fabbrica e produttori di imballaggi cosmetici in Cina, prezzo diretto dei fornitori, 2021/06/15 17:56

Fabbrica e produttori di imballaggi cosmetici in Cina, prezzo diretto dei fornitori

在线赌场游戏, 2021/06/15 19:56


澳门博狗, 2021/06/15 23:23


Sheet Metal Die Maker, 2021/06/16 09:43

Sheet Metal Die Maker

Electrostatic Spray Technology, 2021/06/16 15:38

Electrostatic Spray Technology

China Graphite Heat Exchange Rod, 2021/06/16 17:55

Graphite Heat Exchange Rod

Tool Welding Car, 2021/06/16 19:39

Tool Welding Car

Disposable Medical Protection Clothing Nonwoven, 2021/06/17 01:21

Disposable Medical Protection Clothing Nonwoven

Custom Ratchet Straps, 2021/06/17 03:53

Custom Ratchet Straps

Baby Mosquito Net Price, 2021/06/17 07:13

Baby Mosquito Net Price

Blocking Card, 2021/06/17 13:16

Blocking Card

Face Mask Filtration Test, 2021/06/17 17:14

Face Mask Filtration Test

Festoon Lamp Supplier, 2021/06/17 19:15

Festoon Lamp

China Bearing Ucp 207, 2021/06/18 07:10

Bearing Ucp 207 Supplier

DRS32-4S, 2021/06/18 09:21


Wireless Ultrasound Probe Price, 2021/06/18 11:19

Wireless Ultrasound Probe Price

Cold Compress For Feet, 2021/06/18 17:15

Cold Compress For Feet

24 Volts Lifepo4 Battery, 2021/06/18 19:14

24 Volts Lifepo4 Battery

Air Cooler 110v, 2021/06/19 09:56

Air Cooler 110v

Gifts Or Decoration, 2021/06/19 18:19

Gifts Or Decoration

Rpet Chest Bags, 2021/06/19 22:00

Rpet Chest Bags

Warehousing & Distribution, 2021/06/20 05:38

Warehousing & Distribution

Drum Type Wood Crusher Machine, 2021/06/20 09:38

Drum Type Wood Crusher Machine

Aluminum Cnc Machining Part, 2021/06/20 13:38

Aluminum Cnc Machining Part

Petg Bottle(muji Series), 2021/06/20 15:38

Petg Bottle(muji Series)

AV SEXY, 2021/06/21 01:26


China Wire Rope Steel, 2021/06/21 13:24

China Wire Rope Steel

Integrated Sewage Treatment, 2021/06/22 09:12

Integrated Sewage Treatment

Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer, 2021/06/22 13:10

Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer

Fresh Caramel Popcorn, 2021/06/22 15:09

Fresh Caramel Popcorn

At Home Pcr Test, 2021/06/22 17:09

At Home Pcr Test

One Building One Scenery|List of 3TREES Second "Golden Painter Cup" Projects of Intoxicating Beauty, 2021/06/22 19:07

One Building One Scenery|List of 3TREES Second “Golden Painter Cup” Projects of Intoxicating Beauty

Gun Massager, 2021/06/23 07:06

Gun Massager

Free Sample Hand Tools, 2021/06/23 15:12

Free Sample Hand Tools

Ball Valve Type, 2021/06/23 17:10

Ball Valve Type

Carbon Additive Graphitized Petroleum Coke, 2021/06/23 19:09

Carbon Additive Graphitized Petroleum Coke

Seamless Cylinder Tubes, 2021/06/24 09:18

Seamless Cylinder Tubes

China Corrugated Yellow Drain Pipe, 2021/06/24 11:14

Corrugated Yellow Drain Pipe

Faux Leather Magazine Holder, 2021/06/24 19:07

Faux Leather Magazine Holder

Best Carpentry Tools, 2021/06/24 23:36

Best Carpentry Tools

Cz Engagement Rings, 2021/06/25 09:09

Cz Engagement Rings

Paper Insole Supplier, 2021/06/25 13:10

China Paper Insole

Car Seat Cooling Pad, 2021/06/25 15:08

Car Seat Cooling Pad

Bbm Wheel Press Machine, 2021/06/25 19:04

Bbm Wheel Press Machine

Ultraviolet Robot, 2021/06/25 21:14

Ultraviolet Robot

Natural Taste Succinic Acid Dietary Supplement, 2021/06/26 09:57

Natural Taste Succinic Acid Dietary Supplement

Cryogenic Liquid Tank, 2021/06/26 11:54

Cryogenic Liquid Tank

Electronic Packaging Solutions, 2021/06/26 14:18

Electronic Packaging Solutions

Lady Clothes, 2021/06/26 15:52

Lady Clothes

Self-Propelled Thermoplastic Vibrating Line Making Machine, 2021/06/26 19:53

Self-Propelled Thermoplastic Vibrating Line Making Machine

Anodized Aluminum Parts, 2021/06/26 21:56

Anodized Aluminum Parts

Car Panel Wipes, 2021/06/27 03:40

Car Panel Wipes

400w Led Grow Light, 2021/06/27 07:02

400w Led Grow Light

Infrared Meter, 2021/06/27 11:06

Infrared Meter

14 Gauge Black Annealed Wire, 2021/06/27 13:03

14 Gauge Black Annealed Wire

Bitcoin Mining Rack, 2021/06/27 15:07

Bitcoin Mining Rack

Sexy Silk Sleep Dress, 2021/06/27 15:59

Sexy Silk Sleep Dress

Cnc Lathe Tck6340, 2021/06/27 17:58

Cnc Lathe Tck6340

Kids Set, 2021/06/28 11:25

Kids Set

Agricultural Ventilation Fans, 2021/06/28 13:27

Agricultural Ventilation Fans

China Outdoor Patio Bar Set, 2021/06/28 17:31

China Outdoor Patio Bar Set

76003-29-7, 2021/06/29 13:50


Expert Grill Thermometer, 2021/06/29 17:50

Expert Grill Thermometer

3815-86-9, 2021/06/30 07:55


1-N-Boc-4-(Phenylamino)piperidine, 2021/06/30 09:59


Dehydration Machine For Sale, 2021/06/30 17:06

Dehydration Machine For Sale

Interior Door Bottom Seal, 2021/06/30 19:09

Interior Door Bottom Seal

Stainless Steel Casting Foundry, 2021/07/01 09:07

Stainless Steel Casting Foundry

Pregnancy Test Machine, 2021/07/01 11:07

Pregnancy Test Machine

Countertop Oven, 2021/07/01 13:11

Countertop Oven

2638-94-0, 2021/07/01 15:16


Disposable Face Mask 3 Ply Earloop, 2021/07/01 17:21

Disposable Face Mask 3 Ply Earloop

Sponge Mask Pattern, 2021/07/01 19:25

Sponge Mask Pattern

111-96-6, 2021/07/02 09:08


Filter Bag, 2021/07/02 13:16

Filter Bag

China Diesel Generator Set, 2021/07/02 17:26

China Diesel Generator Set

5234-68-4, 2021/07/03 01:20


1 Ml Perfume Sample Vials, 2021/07/03 07:22

1 Ml Perfume Sample Vials

Pvc Profile Extrusion Companies, 2021/07/03 09:27

Pvc Profile Extrusion Companies

10020-96-9, 2021/07/03 11:32


29094-61-9, 2021/07/03 15:38


Wireless Actuator, 2021/07/03 17:43

Wireless Actuator

Automotive Circuit Tester, 2021/07/04 08:51

Automotive Circuit Tester

Paper Pulp Cleaner Nozzle, 2021/07/04 13:14

Paper Pulp Cleaner Nozzle

Paper Shopping Bags, 2021/07/04 15:21

Paper Shopping Bags

12v 31ah Gel Battery, 2021/07/05 07:48

12v 31ah Gel Battery

Shoulder Handbag, 2021/07/05 09:51

Shoulder Handbag

2766-43-0, 2021/07/05 11:57


Pneumatic Nail Gun Market 2020: Industry Analysis by Trend, Share, Size, Growth, Demands and Forecast to 2027 – Interviewer Today, 2021/07/05 15:41

Pneumatic Nail Gun Market 2020: Industry Analysis by Trend, Share, Size, Growth, Demands and Forecast to 2027 – Interviewer Today

Acrylic PMMA Sheet, 2021/07/05 17:11

Acrylic PMMA Sheet

Auto Ignition System, 2021/07/05 19:16

Auto Ignition System

3 Inch Submersible Pumps, 2021/07/06 11:53

3 Inch Submersible Pumps

AV SEXY, 2021/07/06 13:55


日本AV性爱电影, 2021/07/06 15:58

sexy girls

Flexible Thin Film Switch Panel, 2021/07/06 19:03

Flexible Thin Film Switch Panel

Frozen Mixed Berries, 2021/07/07 03:36

Frozen Mixed Berries

Featured, 2021/07/07 07:15


Quick Load Pump Head, 2021/07/07 11:31

Quick Load Pump Head

Aircraft Cup, 2021/07/07 17:46

Aircraft Cup

Large Kitchen Trash Can, 2021/07/07 19:49

Large Kitchen Trash Can

Galaxy Tab A6 Case, 2021/07/08 15:36

Galaxy Tab A6 Case

2019 Brand New Professional Automatic Small Cereal Bar Making Machine Oatmeal Machine, 2021/07/08 17:39

2019 Brand New Professional Automatic Small Cereal Bar Making Machine Oatmeal Machine

395nm Led Uv Tube Light, 2021/07/08 19:43

395nm Led Uv Tube Light

Glass On Door Handle, 2021/07/08 23:11

Glass On Door Handle

45lb Barbell, 2021/07/09 01:59

45lb Barbell

日本AV性爱电影, 2021/07/09 11:13


2554-06-5, 2021/07/09 13:15


Alpha Lipoic Acid, 2021/07/09 15:18

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Small Tig Welder, 2021/07/10 11:03

Small Tig Welder

industrial sic oven heater Element, 2021/07/10 13:12

industrial sic oven heater Element

3d Printed Armor, 2021/07/10 15:23

3d Printed Armor

Personlised Mobile Ecg Machine, 2021/07/10 19:31

Personlised Mobile Ecg Machine

4kw fiber laser, 2021/07/11 03:56

4kw fiber laser

Cool Whisky Glasses Supplier, 2021/07/11 09:27

Cool Whisky Glasses

20 Inch Electric Stove Stainless Steel Supplier, 2021/07/11 15:49

20 Inch Electric Stove Stainless Steel

Dslr Camera Light, 2021/07/12 11:04

Dslr Camera Light

Can Tab Stock, 2021/07/12 15:16

Can Tab Stock

Adult Pull Ups, 2021/07/12 17:21

Adult Pull Ups

Buy Slotted Angle, 2021/07/12 21:40

Buy Slotted Angle

Organic Liquid Fertilizer, 2021/07/13 01:12

Organic Liquid Fertilizer

4 Ounce Glass Spray Bottles, 2021/07/13 03:51

4 Ounce Glass Spray Bottles

Hydraulic Swing Beam Shear, 2021/07/13 07:24

Hydraulic Swing Beam Shear

Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, 2021/07/13 09:30

Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Linan Chuangxiang Cable Co., Ltd., 2021/07/13 11:35

Linan Chuangxiang Cable Co., Ltd.

Man Hat, 2021/07/13 13:44

Man Hat

Pallet Machine, 2021/07/13 15:52

Pallet Machine

Floor Fitting Price, 2021/07/13 17:59

Floor Fitting Price

Solar Power Grid Tie Inverter, 2021/07/13 23:51

Solar Power Grid Tie Inverter

Tomato Paste Cost, 2021/07/14 09:36

Tomato Paste Cost

Alibaba Dropshipping Service, 2021/07/14 11:44

Alibaba Dropshipping Service

Automatic Pet Laser Toy, 2021/07/14 13:50

Automatic Pet Laser Toy

Conveyor Pole, 2021/07/14 17:01

Conveyor Pole

Disposable Surgical Use Isolation Gown, 2021/07/14 21:15

Disposable Surgical Use Isolation Gown

CE Certification Used Blow Molding Machine Price, 2021/07/15 13:45

CE Certification Used Blow Molding Machine Price

Chicken Coop Hexagonal Mesh, 2021/07/16 03:51

Chicken Coop Hexagonal Mesh

Electric Chipping Hammer, 2021/07/16 11:22

Electric Chipping Hammer

Cleaning Green Beans, 2021/07/16 13:32

Cleaning Green Beans

Beverage In A Pear Shaped Bottle, 2021/07/16 15:39

Beverage In A Pear Shaped Bottle

Cotton T-Shirt, 2021/07/16 17:47

Cotton T-Shirt

Screw Price, 2021/07/16 19:55

Screw Price

Chute Conveyor, 2021/07/17 01:49

Chute Conveyor

Air Filter For Moto Honda Xre 190, 2021/07/17 05:24

Air Filter For Moto Honda Xre 190

Hydraulic Tilting Device, 2021/07/17 07:46

Hydraulic Tilting Device

Artificial Turf Lawn Cost, 2021/07/17 11:57

Artificial Turf Lawn Cost

Exterior Architectural Rendering, 2021/07/17 15:09

Exterior Architectural Rendering

304 Stainless Steel Rectangular Pipe, 2021/07/17 17:25

304 Stainless Steel Rectangular Pipe

Inorganic Painting, 2021/07/17 21:56

Inorganic Painting

Sheet Making Machine, 2021/07/18 03:41

Sheet Making Machine

Bamboo Mug Tree, 2021/07/18 15:05

Bamboo Mug Tree

Hair Digital Microscope, 2021/07/18 19:42

Hair Digital Microscope

Flame Retardent Series, 2021/07/19 11:14

Flame Retardent Series

High Temperature Silicone Rubber Price, 2021/07/19 15:47

High Temperature Silicone Rubber Price

Bling Bling Girls Party Dresses, 2021/07/19 17:57

Bling Bling Girls Party Dresses

Bottling And Capping Machine, 2021/07/20 03:22

Bottling And Capping Machine

Ball Screw 20mm, 2021/07/20 11:34

Ball Screw 20mm

Baby Pull Up Pants Packaging Machine, 2021/07/20 18:01

Baby Pull Up Pants Packaging Machine

Coating & Patching Mixture Series, 2021/07/21 11:55

Coating & Patching Mixture Series

5 Folding Umbrella, 2021/07/21 19:04

5 Folding Umbrella

Sea Water Filtration, 2021/07/22 09:49

Sea Water Filtration

Plant Led Grow Light, 2021/07/22 19:38

Plant Led Grow Light

Best Hyaluronic Filler, 2021/07/23 03:20

Best Hyaluronic Filler

Battery Powered Lawn Sprayer, 2021/07/23 09:40

Battery Powered Lawn Sprayer

Fiat Filter, 2021/07/23 13:38

Fiat Filter

Heat Scanner Camera, 2021/07/24 05:58

Heat Scanner Camera

Blow Dry Comb, 2021/07/24 09:57

Blow Dry Comb

Quick Release Leather Strap, 2021/07/24 13:29

Quick Release Leather Strap

日本性爱直播, 2021/07/25 01:19


2999-46-4, 2021/07/25 11:23


Portable Lux Meter, 2021/07/25 15:05

Portable Lux Meter

375 Ml Wine, 2021/07/25 17:38

375 Ml Wine

Baseball Shirt Custom, 2021/07/26 01:54

Baseball Shirt Custom

Outdoor Dining Benches Factory, 2021/07/26 07:31

Outdoor Dining Benches Factory

Ups Power Switch, 2021/07/26 11:26

Ups Power Switch

Line Check Valve, 2021/07/26 17:25

Line Check Valve

Crusher Wear Parts, 2021/07/26 19:48

Crusher Wear Parts

Scaffolding steel pipe, 2021/07/27 09:27

Scaffolding steel pipe

Compact Drill Set Supplier, 2021/07/28 01:24

Compact Drill Set

Industrial Fibc Air Washer, 2021/07/28 09:37

Industrial Fibc Air Washer

Antibacterial Toilet Wipes, 2021/07/28 11:58

Antibacterial Toilet Wipes Supplier

Landscaping Turf Grass Cost Supplier, 2021/07/28 17:38

Landscaping Turf Grass Cost Supplier

Surface Mount Technology (Smt) Equipment Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2027 – Splash Radio Wales, 2021/07/29 05:57

Surface Mount Technology (Smt) Equipment Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2027 – Splash Radio Wales

Clear Plastic Door Curtains, 2021/07/29 12:00

Clear Plastic Door Curtains

Bitter Almond Kernels, 2021/07/29 15:29

Bitter Almond Kernels

Substituting Powdered Ginger For Fresh, 2021/07/29 21:25

Substituting Powdered Ginger For Fresh

Infrared Thermometer, 2021/07/30 11:06

Infrared Thermometer

Handheld Detection System, 2021/07/30 13:28

Handheld Detection System

2nd Stage Pe Foam, 2021/07/30 15:48

2nd Stage Pe Foam

Click Lock Vinyl Plank Flooring, 2021/07/30 21:58

Click Lock Vinyl Plank Flooring

Chemical Delivery Hose, 2021/07/31 03:30

Chemical Delivery Hose

Cnc Milling Brass, 2021/07/31 17:45

Cnc Milling Brass

Portable Hepa Vacuum Cleaner, 2021/07/31 19:47

Portable Hepa Vacuum Cleaner

High Mixer, 2021/07/31 22:02

High Mixer

Grape Seed Oil Price, 2021/08/01 01:19

Grape Seed Oil Price

Newborn Colorful Baby Clothing, 2021/08/01 07:24

Newborn Colorful Baby Clothing

Cryogenic Spiral Freezers For Potatoes, 2021/08/01 17:29

Cryogenic Spiral Freezers For Potatoes

Cattle Feed Formulation, 2021/08/01 19:51

Cattle Feed Formulation

Flour Bag Sack 25kg, 2021/08/01 23:53

Flour Bag Sack 25kg

One Piece Picainny Rail Aluminum Base, 2021/08/02 05:20

One Piece Picainny Rail Aluminum Base

carbon fiber wheelchair, 2021/08/02 09:21

carbon fiber wheelchair

Digital Smart Board, 2021/08/02 11:56

Digital Smart Board

4G cellphone, 2021/08/03 02:02

4G cellphone

Mini Rg59 Coaxial Cable 5c 2v 75 Ohm, 2021/08/03 07:18

Mini Rg59 Coaxial Cable 5c 2v 75 Ohm

Off Grid Micro Inverter, 2021/08/03 13:29

Off Grid Micro Inverter

Essential oil bottle, 2021/08/04 08:00

Essential oil bottle

black steel pipe for water, 2021/08/04 11:34

black steel pipe for water

Chin Hing Metal Sheet Fabrication, 2021/08/04 15:01

Chin Hing Metal Sheet Fabrication

Housing Filter, 2021/08/05 11:24

Housing Filter

Ce0598, 2021/08/05 17:14


1077-28-7, 2021/08/06 11:36


Nails Making Machine, 2021/08/06 13:54

Nails Making Machine

Control Of Single Acting Cylinder, 2021/08/06 17:14

Control Of Single Acting Cylinder

Arise Precision Casting, 2021/08/06 19:38

Arise Precision Casting

Pen Cartoner, 2021/08/08 11:21

Pen Cartoner

China China Manufacturer Outdoor 33kv Auto Recloser Best Price, 2021/08/09 13:04

China Manufacturer Outdoor 33kv Auto Recloser Best Price Supplier

Featured, 2021/08/10 09:51


Baby Portable Foldable Crib Supplier, 2021/08/10 13:05

Baby Portable Foldable Crib

Storage System, 2021/08/10 15:12

Storage System

China Textile Water Vapor Transmission Rate, 2021/08/10 17:23

China Textile Water Vapor Transmission Rate

Matte Mica Powder, 2021/08/11 09:18

Matte Mica Powder

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10%WP 75%WDG, 2021/08/11 12:00

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10%WP 75%WDG

Nissan U Bolt, 2021/08/13 13:05

Nissan U Bolt

Karaoke Disc Player, 2021/08/14 09:21

Karaoke Disc Player

Haining Mingyang Solar Technology Co., Ltd., 2021/08/14 12:51

Haining Mingyang Solar Technology Co., Ltd.

Fire Fighting Blanket, 2021/08/14 13:53

Fire Fighting Blanket

Home Reed Diffuser Price, 2021/08/14 17:05

Home Reed Diffuser Price

Cargo Scanner Machine, 2021/08/15 09:05

Cargo Scanner Machine

cosmetics pouch bag, 2021/08/15 11:23

cosmetics pouch bag

Landscape Flood Light, 2021/08/15 13:43

Landscape Flood Light

3050 Co2 Laser Engraver, 2021/08/15 16:01

3050 Co2 Laser Engraver

Colored Pvc Boards, 2021/08/15 19:20

Colored Pvc Boards

5 Pin Relay, 2021/08/16 11:13

5 Pin Relay

Curing Light, 2021/08/16 15:55

Curing Light

Air Handling Unit, 2021/08/16 19:21

Air Handling Unit

Amazon Pillows, 2021/08/17 01:41

Amazon Pillows

6x6 Reinforcing Welded Wire Mesh, 2021/08/17 08:02

6×6 Reinforcing Welded Wire Mesh

Cool Pants, 2021/08/17 15:33

Cool Pants

10mm Drill Bit, 2021/08/17 17:42

10mm Drill Bit

Anti-Uv Blue Sticky Mat Esd Cleanroom Mat, 2021/08/17 19:59

Anti-Uv Blue Sticky Mat Esd Cleanroom Mat

Electrical Switch Box, 2021/08/17 23:46

Electrical Switch Box

elephant hoist, 2021/08/18 07:18

elephant hoist

Underpad Medical, 2021/08/18 09:37

Underpad Medical

Anti-Collision Systems, 2021/08/18 13:54

Anti-Collision Systems

Car Roof Container, 2021/08/18 16:00

Car Roof Container

Masonry Eye Bolt, 2021/08/18 19:08

Masonry Eye Bolt

3d Animation Quotation Sample, 2021/08/18 21:41

3d Animation Quotation Sample

Comie Motorcycle Tour Tail Box, 2021/08/19 09:06

Comie Motorcycle Tour Tail Box

Multi-cryolipolysis slimming machine, 2021/08/19 11:13

Multi-cryolipolysis slimming machine

Best Microfiber, 2021/08/19 13:18

Best Microfiber

Essential Sweatshirt, 2021/08/19 17:37

Essential Sweatshirt

ACS580-01-07A3-4, 2021/08/20 05:50


Desk Office, 2021/08/20 13:23

Desk Office

Crawler Crane Parts, 2021/08/20 15:31

Crawler Crane Parts

Eec Coc Electric Mope Vehicle, 2021/08/20 17:39

Eec Coc Electric Mope Vehicle

3d Model Rendering, 2021/08/20 23:14

3d Model Rendering

Off Road Helmet, 2021/08/21 07:45

Off Road Helmet

5 Hydroxytryptophan Uses, 2021/08/21 13:02

5 Hydroxytryptophan Uses

China 304 Stainless Hard Wire 1.6mm, 2021/08/21 17:16

China 304 Stainless Hard Wire 1.6mm

Oil Free Air Pump, 2021/08/22 05:57

Oil Free Air Pump

Blank Polyester Socks, 2021/08/22 09:12

Blank Polyester Socks

China Hydraulic Power Pack, 2021/08/22 13:37

China Hydraulic Power Pack

Toddler Mattress Cover, 2021/08/22 15:48

Toddler Mattress Cover

Single Open Width, 2021/08/23 00:00

Single Open Width

2 Inch Hole Saw For Wood, 2021/08/23 03:44

2 Inch Hole Saw For Wood

Fireworks Colors, 2021/08/23 09:48

Fireworks Colors

Web Camera Webcam, 2021/08/23 15:09

Web Camera Webcam

Butyl Rubber Glue, 2021/08/23 19:33

Butyl Rubber Glue

Best Compressible Sleeping Bag, 2021/08/23 23:08

Best Compressible Sleeping Bag

Neon Custom Lights, 2021/08/24 05:39

Neon Custom Lights

Book Cover Tab S6, 2021/08/24 11:20

Book Cover Tab S6

China Automatic 3D Chocolate Depositing Line Chocolate Manufacturing Machine, 2021/08/24 13:31

China Automatic 3D Chocolate Depositing Line Chocolate Manufacturing Machine

Cage Guided Control Valve, 2021/08/24 15:40

Cage Guided Control Valve

Oneplus Screen Guard, 2021/08/24 17:49

Oneplus Screen Guard

580-16-5, 2021/08/25 09:30


Diy Camera System, 2021/08/25 13:54

Diy Camera System

Conical Twin Screw Extruder Pvc, 2021/08/25 17:02

Conical Twin Screw Extruder Pvc

Base Layer Top, 2021/08/25 19:12

Base Layer Top

8 Oz Glass Jars With Lids, 2021/08/26 05:28

8 Oz Glass Jars With Lids

China 100% Polyester Vest and Hivis Vest price, 2021/08/26 11:20

China 100% Polyester Vest and Hivis Vest price

Dental Zirconia Block For Cad Cam, 2021/08/26 13:30

Dental Zirconia Block For Cad Cam

Girls Fluffy Slippers, 2021/08/26 15:45

Girls Fluffy Slippers

Plastic Wall Panel, 2021/08/26 17:53

Plastic Wall Panel

China Wholesale Glycine Medication Manufacturers, 2021/08/27 08:01

China Wholesale Glycine Medication Manufacturers

2017 Factory Expansive Mortar Production Price, 2021/08/27 11:07

2017 Factory Expansive Mortar Production Price

Jet Tag, 2021/08/27 13:30

Jet Tag

Polo Shirt, 2021/08/27 15:46

Polo Shirt

Black Cable Knit Cardigan, 2021/08/27 21:20

Black Cable Knit Cardigan

Laser Land Leveler For Tractor, 2021/08/28 00:01

Laser Land Leveler For Tractor

Powder Granulator, 2021/08/28 09:43

Powder Granulator

Crossbody Hobo Bag, 2021/08/28 13:07

Crossbody Hobo Bag

Indoor Jungle Gym Equipment, 2021/08/28 15:39

Indoor Jungle Gym Equipment

LED License Plate Light, 2021/08/28 19:13

LED License Plate Light

Aluminium Foil Pouch Making Machine, 2021/08/28 21:37

Aluminium Foil Pouch Making Machine

Router Machine, 2021/08/29 03:43

Router Machine

Lug Style Butterfly Valve, 2021/08/29 10:00

Lug Style Butterfly Valve

Mold In Closet On Shoes, 2021/08/29 13:29

Mold In Closet On Shoes

3.0MM Yellow Discrete, 2021/08/29 15:54

3.0MM Yellow Discrete

Iron Pipe Flange, 2021/08/29 19:15

Iron Pipe Flange

3 Wheels Children Scooter Kids Mini Baby Scooter, 2021/08/29 23:07

3 Wheels Children Scooter Kids Mini Baby Scooter

Cass No. 99-75-2, 2021/08/30 13:45

Cass No. 99-75-2

deluxe porta potty, 2021/08/31 13:07

deluxe porta potty

Guestbook, 2021/08/31 17:09


25lbs Mesh Bag, 2021/09/01 11:39

25lbs Mesh Bag

Cashew Crunch, 2021/09/01 15:31

Cashew Crunch

asian style toilet seats, 2021/09/02 02:00

asian style toilet seats

Water Sprinkler, 2021/09/02 09:30

Water Sprinkler

water conserving restroom, 2021/09/03 17:05

water conserving restroom

High-Speed Busbar Processing Machine, 2021/09/03 21:09

High-Speed Busbar Processing Machine

Mid Nasal Swab, 2021/09/04 09:13

Mid Nasal Swab

スーパーコピーブランド通販専門店全てのコピー品通販, 2021/09/04 15:45

1,2-Benzenedicarbonitrile,4-Nitro スーパーコピーブランド通販専門店全てのコピー品通販

ルイヴィトンスーパーコピー財布, 2021/09/04 19:45

Electrical Wire Lugs 韓国コピーブランド税関スーパーコピーブランド人気

Hermesエルメス財布スーパーコピー, 2021/09/05 13:59

Rotomoulding Slop Tank Mold Hermesエルメス財布スーパーコピー

4-Chloro-N-Methylpicolinamide, 2021/09/05 20:00

Chanelシャネルネックレススーパーコピー 4-Chloro-N-Methylpicolinamide

LouisVuittonルイヴィトン財布スーパーコピー, 2021/09/06 03:06

Free Chlorine Instrument LouisVuittonルイヴィトン財布スーパーコピー

vacuum squatting toilet, 2021/09/06 11:37

LouisVuittonルイヴィトン帽子スーパーコピー vacuum squatting toilet

Bookstore Fixtures, 2021/09/06 17:37

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンサングラススーパーコピー Bookstore Fixtures

Pradaプラダ財布スーパーコピー, 2021/09/07 15:06

Ankle Splint Pradaプラダ財布スーパーコピー

LouisVuittonルイヴィトン指輪スーパーコピー, 2021/09/07 19:57

Automatic snack tamale maker LouisVuittonルイヴィトン指輪スーパーコピー

Gucciグッチイヤリングスーパーコピー, 2021/09/08 17:46

Reishi Spore Powder Gucciグッチイヤリングスーパーコピー

Automotive Stamping, 2021/09/09 09:23

Chanelシャネルサングラススーパーコピー Automotive Stamping

Magnetic Curtain Wide, 2021/09/09 15:23

Hermesエルメス指輪販売店 Magnetic Curtain Wide

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンスマホケーススーパーコピー, 2021/09/09 17:51

Polio Blade Laryngoscope LouisVuittonルイヴィトンスマホケーススーパーコピー

Paneraiパネライ時計販売店, 2021/09/10 09:46

Laboratory Washing Disinfector With Drying Paneraiパネライ時計販売店

50ml Foam Pump Bottle, 2021/09/10 15:44

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンバッグコピー 50ml Foam Pump Bottle

DIORディオール指輪販売店, 2021/09/11 09:58

2 DIORディオール指輪販売店

ブランドTiffanyティファニーネックレスコピー代引き, 2021/09/11 17:01

Dozer Crawler ブランドTiffanyティファニーネックレスコピー代引き

LouisVuittonルイヴィトン財布コピー, 2021/09/11 19:43

Bride Lace The Lace Trimming For Hometextile LouisVuittonルイヴィトン財布コピー

Baby Carpet Mat, 2021/09/12 01:15

ブランドMCMエムシーエム財布コピー代引き Baby Carpet Mat

Rolexロレックス時計スーパーコピー, 2021/09/12 07:02

Aluminium Extrusion Linear Rail Rolexロレックス時計スーパーコピー

ブランド財布コピー, 2021/09/12 15:53

Best Sex Toys 2020 ブランド財布コピー

Hand Held Pneumatic Rock Drill, 2021/09/13 11:29

ブランドコピーGoyardゴヤールN級品 Hand Held Pneumatic Rock Drill

Folding Ebike Frame, 2021/09/13 17:51

ブランド財布コピー Folding Ebike Frame

ブランドスマホケースコピー代引き, 2021/09/14 13:35

Delta Trinsic ブランドスマホケースコピー代引き

ChristianLouboutinクリスチャンルブタンブランドコピー代引き, 2021/09/14 17:19

En877 Standard Red Coated Grey Cast Iron Pipe Fittings ChristianLouboutinクリスチャンルブタンブランドコピー代引き

Black And Rattan Mirror, 2021/09/15 11:58

Tiffanyティファニーネックレス販売店 Black And Rattan Mirror

Anti-Cancer, 2021/09/16 15:02

ブランドバッグコピー Anti-Cancer

brand bag, 2021/09/16 17:35

ブランド時計コピー brand bag

625ml Round Lunch Box, 2021/09/17 15:29

ブランド時計コピー 625ml Round Lunch Box

China Disposable Nitrile Gloves and Clinical Supplies price, 2021/09/18 13:22

ブランド財布コピー China Disposable Nitrile Gloves and Clinical Supplies price

Aluminum Cnc Milling Machine Part, 2021/09/18 19:27

ブランドコピー専門店 Aluminum Cnc Milling Machine Part

4 Inch Roof Exhaust Vent, 2021/09/18 23:40

ブランドコピー専門店 4 Inch Roof Exhaust Vent

ブランド財布コピー, 2021/09/19 08:08

cordless brushless Impact drill ブランド時計コピー

コピー時計, 2021/09/19 11:32

All Roads Barricades ブランド時計コピー

ブランドバッグコピー, 2021/09/20 11:17

amusement park electric walking dinosaur sale ブランドコピー代引き

Big Glass Sliding Doors, 2021/09/20 19:59

ブランド財布コピー Big Glass Sliding Doors

Hats, 2021/09/21 01:07

ブランドコピー代引き Hats

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/21 09:30

Clothesline Clothing ブランド時計コピー

ブランド財布コピー, 2021/09/21 13:12

Bento Container スーパーコピーバッグ

1000 Liter Brew House, 2021/09/21 18:11

スーパーコピーブランド 1000 Liter Brew House

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/21 19:45

Auger To Drill Holes ブランド財布コピー

ブランド時計コピー, 2021/09/22 01:05

Fiberglass Assembled Roving ブランドコピー専門店

スーパーコピーブランド, 2021/09/22 06:04

Lapped Joint Flange ブランドコピー専門店

スーパーコピーブランド, 2021/09/22 10:00

Biodegradable Milk Packaging コピー時計

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/22 13:36

Planetary Motor 12v スーパーコピーバッグ

Eco-Friendly Pvc Compounds, 2021/09/22 17:15

最新ブランドスーパーコピー代引き Eco-Friendly Pvc Compounds

ブランド財布コピー, 2021/09/22 19:54

Drip Irrigation India スーパーコピーブランド

RogerVivierロジェ?ヴィヴィエブランドコピー代引き, 2021/09/23 01:28

Long Tube Tralier RogerVivierロジェ?ヴィヴィエブランドコピー代引き

ブランドコピー専門店, 2021/09/23 09:06

Material Lift スーパーコピーブランド

Travel Makeup Wipes, 2021/09/23 15:51

Diorディオールバッグコピー Travel Makeup Wipes

ブランドコピーCartierカルティエN級品, 2021/09/23 23:58

Mining Dispatching Winch ブランドコピーCartierカルティエN級品

ChristianLouboutinクリスチャンルブタン財布コピー, 2021/09/24 09:36

best eye shadow ChristianLouboutinクリスチャンルブタン財布コピー

Backhoe Excavator Loader Mini, 2021/09/24 17:03

ブランドDiorディオールスマホケースコピーN級品 Backhoe Excavator Loader Mini

ブランドChanelシャネル指輪コピーN級品, 2021/09/25 13:20

Filters ブランドChanelシャネル指輪コピーN級品

Balenciagaバレンシアガバッグスーパーコピー, 2021/09/25 15:54

Combination Hammer Balenciagaバレンシアガバッグスーパーコピー

Mine Rock Bolt Stabilizer, 2021/09/25 23:35

ブランド帽子販売店 Mine Rock Bolt Stabilizer

Gym Floor Puzzle Mats, 2021/09/26 05:05

Pradaプラダ靴スーパーコピー Gym Floor Puzzle Mats

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/26 05:36

Black Chopping Board ブランド財布コピー

Fertilizers Organic, 2021/09/26 09:09

Breitlingブライトリング財布コピー Fertilizers Organic

Burberryバーバリーマフラースーパーコピー, 2021/09/26 11:48

Factory Mezzanine Floors Burberryバーバリーマフラースーパーコピー

Diorディオール財布コピー, 2021/09/26 21:50

Large Fishing Kayak Diorディオール財布コピー

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/27 11:44

Kids Custom Umbrella ブランド財布コピー

Celineセリーヌ財布販売店, 2021/09/27 15:12

Battery Powered Carriage Celineセリーヌ財布販売店

ブランドBvlgariブルガリ時計コピー代引き, 2021/09/27 21:21

Heat Not Burn Oem ブランドBvlgariブルガリ時計コピー代引き

ブランドコピー専門店, 2021/09/28 07:20

Food Truck Prices スーパーコピーバッグ

Patio Screen Door, 2021/09/28 11:04

ブランドイヤリングコピーN級品 Patio Screen Door

Rolexロレックスブランドコピー代引き, 2021/09/28 13:30

Anavar 50mg Rolexロレックスブランドコピー代引き

Canned Strawberries, 2021/09/28 19:30

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンスマホケーススーパーコピー Canned Strawberries

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/09/28 23:47

Apparel ブランド財布コピー

240v Retractable Cable Reel, 2021/09/29 11:17

ブランドDiorディオール靴コピー代引き 240v Retractable Cable Reel

04259311kz Turbocharger, 2021/09/29 15:07

ブランドDiorディオールサングラスコピーN級品 04259311kz Turbocharger

24 Inch Diamond Saw Blade, 2021/09/29 17:58

ブランドコピーSalvatoreFerragamoサルヴァトーレフェラガモN級品 24 Inch Diamond Saw Blade

最新ブランドスーパーコピー代引き, 2021/09/29 23:38

Cool Sports Bras 最新ブランドスーパーコピー代引き

Gucciグッチ帽子スーパーコピー, 2021/09/30 05:35

Safety Lockout Tagout Gucciグッチ帽子スーパーコピー

SaintLaurentサンローラン靴コピー, 2021/09/30 09:58

3 Point Hitch Seeder SaintLaurentサンローラン靴コピー

Gucciグッチ指輪販売店, 2021/09/30 19:56

optical progresiive iot lenses Gucciグッチ指輪販売店

Intelligent Speaker Mesh, 2021/10/01 05:01

Hermesエルメスブレスレットスーパーコピー Intelligent Speaker Mesh

CA70 wholesale, 2021/10/01 07:57

ブランドLouisVuittonルイヴィトンサングラスコピー代引き CA70 wholesale

portaloo toilet, 2021/10/01 11:39

Loeweロエベバッグ販売店 portaloo toilet

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンブレスレットコピー, 2021/10/01 15:35

Loader Joystick Parts LouisVuittonルイヴィトンブレスレットコピー

Side Loader Transport, 2021/10/01 19:12

ブランドバッグコピー Side Loader Transport

Celineセリーヌ財布スーパーコピー, 2021/10/02 01:34

500w Electric Scooter Celineセリーヌ財布スーパーコピー

ブランドChanelシャネルバッグコピー代引き, 2021/10/03 03:47

80w Laser Engraving Machine ブランドChanelシャネルバッグコピー代引き

ブランドコピー代引き, 2021/10/03 07:18

China Geomembrane Welding Machine ブランドコピー代引き

Pradaプラダバッグ販売店, 2021/10/03 11:09

All Electric Truck Refrigeration Supplier Pradaプラダバッグ販売店

Burberryバーバリー帽子販売店, 2021/10/03 15:06

Folding Container House Burberryバーバリー帽子販売店

ブランドCelineセリーヌ財布コピーN級品, 2021/10/03 17:50

Heavy Duty Sump Pump ブランドCelineセリーヌ財布コピーN級品

LouisVuittonルイヴィトンブレスレットスーパーコピー, 2021/10/04 09:27

Laser welded plate ice machine LouisVuittonルイヴィトンブレスレットスーパーコピー

Exhaust Hose Clamp, 2021/10/04 13:13

ブランドコピー代引き Exhaust Hose Clamp

China Aluminum Extrusion 6061 T6, 2021/10/04 15:50

ブランド靴コピーN級品 China Aluminum Extrusion 6061 T6

Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger, 2021/10/04 19:24

Goyardゴヤールバッグコピー Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger

Silicone Hose Sizes, 2021/10/05 03:30

LouisVuittonルイヴィトン靴販売店 Silicone Hose Sizes

BottegaVenetaボッテガヴェネタバッグコピー, 2021/10/05 07:21

3ton Forklift BottegaVenetaボッテガヴェネタバッグコピー

Metal Cutting Machine Factory, 2021/10/05 09:58

ブランド財布コピー Metal Cutting Machine Factory

ブランド時計コピー, 2021/10/05 13:35

Electronic Packaging Box Price ブランド財布コピー

Diorディオールサングラス販売店, 2021/10/05 19:43

Glassware Set Diorディオールサングラス販売店

Hengli Eletek Co., Ltd., 2021/10/05 23:40

Balenciagaバレンシアガ帽子販売店 Hengli Eletek Co., Ltd.

Digital Billboard Trailer, 2021/10/06 03:51

Bvlgariブルガリブレスレットスーパーコピー Digital Billboard Trailer

BottegaVenetaボッテガヴェネタコピー激安, 2021/10/06 11:25

Jewelry Gift Watch BottegaVenetaボッテガヴェネタコピー激安

ブランドコピー代引き, 2021/10/06 15:02

Aux cable コピー時計

American Type Hose Clamp, 2021/10/06 21:08

MiuMiuミュウミュウ靴販売店 American Type Hose Clamp

25G WDM SFP28, 2021/10/07 12:00

ブランドコピー代引き 25G WDM SFP28

Bottle Screw Cap Mould, 2021/10/07 19:18

ブランドGucciグッチ靴コピー代引き Bottle Screw Cap Mould

Led Drop Ceiling Lights, 2021/10/07 23:22

ブランドGucciグッチイヤリングコピー代引き Led Drop Ceiling Lights

A106b, 2021/10/08 05:24

ChristianLouboutinクリスチャンルブタン靴コピー A106b

スーパーコピーバッグ, 2021/10/08 09:33

Bluetooth Eyeglasses ブランドコピー専門店

ブランド時計コピー, 2021/10/08 13:16

Deep Drawing Metal Stamping ブランド時計コピー

ブランドコピー代引き, 2021/10/08 15:58

Crankshaft Dial Indicator ブランド財布コピー

12v 22ah Sla Battery, 2021/10/09 15:23

スーパーコピーブランド 12v 22ah Sla Battery

ブランドバッグコピー, 2021/10/09 17:59

Best Diclazuril Powder ブランド財布コピー

ブランドバッグコピー, 2021/10/10 05:29

Automated Rna Extractor ブランドコピー代引き

Bucket Cyclone Dust Collector, 2021/10/10 09:09

スーパーコピーバッグ Bucket Cyclone Dust Collector

Cylindrical Lithium Cells, 2021/10/10 19:26

ブランドバッグコピー Cylindrical Lithium Cells

Agricultural Silicone Additive, 2021/10/10 23:59

コピー時計 Agricultural Silicone Additive

High Temperature Resistant Powder Coatings, 2021/10/11 07:16

Evacuation Bag List ブランドバッグコピー High Temperature Resistant Powder Coatings

Different Color Plastic Tissue Embedding Cassette, 2021/10/11 11:18

Charger Battery コピー時計 Different Color Plastic Tissue Embedding Cassette

Sharps Container Medical, 2021/10/11 15:06

Hdpe Pipe 400mm ブランドバッグコピー Sharps Container Medical

American Cars Brake Pad, 2021/10/11 21:53

ブランドバッグコピー HPMC for Mortar American Cars Brake Pad

ブランドコピー代引き, 2021/10/12 03:39

SMTYT1040 Integrated Inductor Plastic Hookah Cup スーパーコピーバッグ

Horizontal Conveyor, 2021/10/12 09:32

Camshaft Position ブランドコピー代引き Horizontal Conveyor

ブランドバッグコピー, 2021/10/12 13:27

Bulk Bags With Discharge Spout 06A906031CE ブランドコピー専門店

Environmental Heat-resisted Tableware and Biopbs Fully Degradable, 2021/10/12 17:05

1220mm 180mm Spc Flooring Manufacturer スーパーコピーバッグ Environmental Heat-resisted Tableware and Biopbs Fully Degradable

Pallet Manufacturers, 2021/10/12 19:51

Flexible Packaging ブランドコピー代引き Pallet Manufacturers

コピー時計, 2021/10/13 01:35

Camera Monitor Aluminum Cnc Machining Part 2HP Air-cooled Stainless Steel Chiller ブランドバッグコピー

Sterile Gauze Pads, 2021/10/13 11:11

Food And Beverage Additives ブランドコピー代引き Sterile Gauze Pads

Pvc Circuit Board, 2021/10/14 13:27

ブランド財布コピー Nairobi Kenya Pvc Circuit Board

ブランドバッグコピー, 2021/10/14 21:57

Peltier 12709 Tungsten-cobalt Alloy Plate ブランドバッグコピー

Dispersing Agents, 2021/10/15 09:15

Vertical Shower Door Seal Strip ブランド財布コピー Dispersing Agents

Modern Bar Stools, 2021/10/15 17:55

ブランドバッグコピー 52226 bearing Modern Bar Stools

Cotton Towels With Custom Embroidery, 2021/10/15 23:09

1.25 Inch Hdpe Pipe ブランドコピー専門店 Cotton Towels With Custom Embroidery

Enter your comment. Wiki syntax is allowed:
analysis/course-w16/week11.txt · Last modified: 2018/07/07 10:19 (external edit)