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analysis:nsb2015

Contents

Fundamentals
Spike data basics
Local field potential data basics
Intermediate topics
Advanced topics
Reference

Prerequisites

Basic familiarity with MATLAB. Depending on your background and programming experience you might find the following resources helpful:

If you are unsure, take a look at the table of contents of the Primer. If there are things you don't recognize, use the Primer itself, or Chapter 2 of the MATLAB for Neuroscientists book to get up to speed.

Resources

This course is “standalone”, but the following textbooks provide more in-depth treatment of some of the topics.

What this tutorial is

A hands-on introduction to basic management, visualization, and analysis of neurophysiology data (spike trains and LFPs from behaving rodents acquired using Neuralynx systems) using MATLAB. We will make contact with a few concepts from computer science, signal processing, and statistics. However, the focus is on making initial steps that work and getting pointers to more complete treatment, rather than a thorough theoretical grounding.

What this tutorial is not

This course will provide a brief introduction to a number of concepts which are themselves the subject of multiple courses and voluminous textbooks. These include signal processing topics such as Fourier analysis and filter design, computer science concepts such as object-oriented programming and binary data formats, and a number of statistical ideas and tools. Be aware that if any of these are particularly important to your research, you should consider taking more in-depth coursework and/or working through relevant textbooks on your own: this short tutorial cannot replace such courses!

Note for Linux and OS X users

The lab codebase is set up for machines running 64-bit Windows 7. To make the low-level loading functions work on OSX or Linux, you'll need to download them yourself from the Neuralynx website. Some more specific instructions are provided in subsequent modules when loading is introduced.

Discussion

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Organization of information support for the management of the corporation

Analytical information is used to assess the achieved level of production and economic activity and to identify unused resources. It is the basis of control, which can be regarded as a system of observation and verification of compliance of the process of functioning of the managed object to the management decisions taken. Depending on what types of accounting and planned information are compared and for what purposes are used, there is operational analytical information, based on the use of operational, planned and accounting information for the purpose of operational management, and strategic information, the main content of which is the analysis of the implementation of current and future plans, and which is used to make strategic decisions.

The classification of economic information can be based on other attributes. Without classifying economic information, it is impossible to analyze existing information flows, build new, better information systems and make optimal management decisions. The complexity of the tasks solved by the management of modern corporations necessitates the introduction of information technologies and the use of automated information management systems.

“Management information system (MIS) is a set of information, economic and mathematical methods and models, technical, software, other technological means and specialists, designed for processing information and making management decisions”.

Properly designed and organized IS allow to increase the degree of validity of management decisions, ensuring their timeliness through the rapid collection, transfer and processing of information, as well as to increase the efficiency of management through the timely presentation of the necessary information to the managers of all levels of management from a single information fund.

The main functions of such systems are operational control and regulation, operational accounting and analysis, perspective and operational planning, bookkeeping, sales and supply management and solution of other economic and organizational tasks.

Speaking of the automation of management personnel functions, it is necessary to give a classification of IS according to the degree of automation of information processes. According to this feature are distinguished:

- Manual information systems, which are characterized by the absence of modern technical means of information processing and the performance of all operations by humans according to pre-designed methods. - Automated information systems - man-machine systems that provide automated collection, processing and transmission of information necessary for making management decisions in organizations of various types. - Automated information systems are characterized by execution of all information processing operations automatically, without human involvement, but leave the control functions to man. The main part of the automated information system is the information technology (IT), the development of which is closely linked with the development and functioning of the IS.

' Information technology (IT) is a process that uses a set of methods and means of implementing operations to collect, register, transmit, accumulate and process information based on software and hardware to solve management problems of an economic object.

The main purpose of automated information technology is to obtain information of a new quality by processing the primary data, on the basis of which optimal management decisions are made. This is achieved by integrating information, ensuring its relevance and consistency, using modern technical means for the implementation and functioning of qualitatively new forms of information support for the activities of the management apparatus.

Physically, information technology is based on hardware and software products. Hardware refers to the number of so-called supporting technologies. Reference technologies are such information technologies that can be applied in any sphere of human activity.

Software products are subdivided into operating systems, user shells, auxiliary, communication and anti-virus programs. From the point of view of managerial activity all software products are basic.

In a lesser degree it is possible to refer the so-called packages of functional information processing to the supporting technologies. These include text and table editors, database management systems, integrated office packages, programs of speech synthesis and recognition and software products of distributed information processing. Considering software products of intellectual support of management decisions, it should be noted their clear problem orientation. These include accounting packages, financial packages, software products for planning and forecasting the activities of an enterprise and others. However, even problem-oriented information technologies can have a wide spread. For example, financial and accounting packages, having a narrow area of professional application, are common in all enterprises and organizations.

Support and problem-oriented software products, interacting with each other, form an information system that can operate at the level of a firm or large enterprise (corporate information systems or sms notification system). Among management information systems, ERP-systems (Enterprise Resource Planning) are a promising direction for increasing the efficiency of industrial corporations. Such systems are intended for planning and management of all resources of a corporation used for production, including financial ones, thus providing significantly more opportunities than MRP (Material Requirement Planning), intended for planning needs in material resources or MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning), intended for planning and management of corporate production resources. ERP-systems, having wide possibilities of financial modules of functional subsystems and ability to integrate different information systems used in a corporation into a single complex, provide support of management cycle (planning, regulation, control, accounting):

- production planning; - inventory management, purchasing, sales; - financial management; - personnel management; - cost management; - project management; - design of products and technological processes. Functional subsystems provide processing, transformation of data for the development and adoption of management decisions in a particular area of the corporation (production, marketing, sales, finance, accounting, human resources).

ERP-system is an ideology of planning and management of large corporations by automating and optimizing business processes. Through the use of ERP-systems automate all major corporate business processes in a single information environment and based on a single database.

ERP-systems provide an opportunity to solve integration problems in the implementation of almost all functions of corporate management. In this case the notion of “integration” implies a comprehensive use of single-entry data into the system that provides a solution to numerous interrelated management tasks using a single standard of information processes (the formation of uniform requirements to forms and methods of storage, transmission and presentation of information).

Thus, ERP-systems used to support information processes, providing functional subsystems of the corporation, and acting on the basis of a unified IT-platform within a single standard of data exchange, represent integrated information systems or integrated management systems of corporations. At the same time ERP-systems allow to replace the disparate information systems of different nature and functionality used in different structural subdivisions of large corporations at all levels of the management hierarchy. Such possibility of ERP-systems is important for large corporate structures using several different information systems which simultaneous replacement by corresponding modules of ERP-system is impossible or impracticable. There are three levels of integration:

- IT-compatability; - interoperability of functional subsystems and applications; - Integration of business management (business integration). EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) - software packages that provide only interfacing of applications available in a corporation and have no own modules of functional subsystems - are means of integration of separate functional modules. The purpose of EAI-systems is to simplify the integration of different applications by automating the execution of numerous low-level interface operations. This automation is carried out by a connector (adapter) built into the EAI-system, which receives and transmits data from one application to another thru alert software for windows.

Integration on the basis of ERP-systems provides an opportunity to create a single environment to provide information processes characterizing the automated business processes in all functional areas. Thus, the feasibility of using these systems is determined by analysis and comparison of the results of calculating the cost of their implementation and use and calculation of the cost of replacing old systems or functional subsystems with new ones.

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